Potassium                                                                                                                                         Sodium



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Calcium is essential for living organisms, in particular in cell physiology

Calcium is needed for different functions in the body, to help blood vessels move blood throughout the body and to help release hormones and enzymes that affect almost every function in the human body. from bones, to blood clotting, your muscles, for nerves to carry messages between the brain and every body part.

Bone is a dynamic part of the body and calcium is constantly flowing into, and out of it. Almost all calcium is stored in bones and teeth, where it supports their structure and hardness. It plays an important role in building stronger, denser bones early in life and keeping bones strong and healthy later in life.

Calcium is found in many multivitamin-mineral supplements, though the amount varies by product.

Dietary supplements that contain only calcium or calcium with other nutrients such as vitamin D is important because vitamin D is converted to a hormone in the body, which then induces the synthesis of intestinal proteins responsible for calcium absorption.

Common symptoms of Calcium deficiency

Prolonged bone re-absorption from chronic dietary deficiency results in osteoporosis – from either too little bone mass accumulation during growth or higher rate of bone loss at menopause.

bone fractures

increased risk of hypertension (high blood pressure),

colon cancer.

variety of symptoms from:

aching joints, eczema, elevated blood cholesterol, heart palpitations, brittle nails

insomnia can become evident Muscle cramps, numbness in the arms and legs, rheumatoid arthritis, nervousness, depression and delusions convulsions numbness and tingling in the fingers , and abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to death if not corrected

lifelong deficit can affect bone and tooth formation, decreased absorption of other minerals

Certain groups of people are more likely than others to have trouble getting enough calcium:

Postmenopausal women because they experience greater bone loss and do not absorb calcium as well. Sufficient calcium intake from food, and supplements if needed, can slow the rate of bone loss.

Women of childbearing age whose menstrual periods stop (amenorrhea) because they exercise heavily, eat too little, or both.

They need sufficient calcium to cope with the resulting decreased calcium absorption

increased calcium losses in the urine, and slowdown in the formation of new bone.

People with lactose intolerance cannot digest this natural sugar found in milk, when they drink it they experience symptoms like bloating, gas, and diarrhea

They usually can eat other calcium-rich dairy products that are low in lactose, such as yogurt and many cheeses, and drink lactose-reduced or lactose-free milk.

Vegans (vegetarians who eat no animal products) and ovo-vegetarians (vegetarians who eat eggs but no dairy products), because they avoid the dairy products that are a major source of calcium in other people’s diets.

Many factors can affect the amount of calcium absorbed from the digestive tract, including:

Age. Efficiency of calcium absorption decreases as people age. Recommended calcium intakes are higher for people over age 70

Vitamin D intake. This vitamin, present in some foods and produced in the body when skin is exposed to sunlight, increases calcium absorption.

Both oxalic acid (in some vegetables and beans) and phytic acid (in whole grains) can reduce calcium absorption but people who eat a variety of foods don’t have to consider these factors.

Consumption of alcohol- and caffeine-containing beverages as well as intake of other nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus) can affect how much calcium the body eliminates in urine, feces, and sweat.

May be needed if you suffer from


Lacking in Vitamin D

Have a gum disease

Eat processed foods, ingest excess protein, fat, sugar or caffeine, salt or fizzy soda drinks

Consumption of alcohol

Taking a birth control pill, diuretic (water pill) antacids

Hormone replacement therapy

Drinking bottled water with a low mineral content could require more dietary calcium

Common symptoms of Calcium Toxicity

the calcium ion and most calcium compounds have low toxicity

Mineral imbalances such as zinc, but combined with a magnesium deficiency it may cause deposits to form in your kidneys, which could cause kidney stones.

Higher intakes of calcium from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones,

Older adults can cause constipation increase the risk of kidney stones.

over-retention can cause hypercalcemia (elevated levels of calcium in the blood)

Acute calcium poisoning is rare, and difficult to achieve unless calcium compounds are administered intravenously.


Assist in preventing bowel cancer. Calcium supplements or diets high in calcium might lower the risks of developing cancer of the colon or rectum or increase the risk of prostate cancer.

high calcium and vitamin D intake was associated with “lower risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer.” And that 1400–1500 mg supplemental calcium and 1100 IU vitamin D3 reduced aggregated cancers with a relative risk of 0.402

Estrogen promotes deposits of calcium in the bones.

•    Calcium can reduce the absorption of these drugs when taken together: o    Bisphosphonates (to treat osteoporosis) o    Antibiotics of the fluoroquinolone and tetracycline families o    Levothyroxine (to treat low thyroid activity) o    Phenytoin (an anticonvulsant) o    Tiludronate disodium (to treat Paget’s disease).

•    Diuretics differ in their effects. Thiazide-type diuretics (such as Diuril® and Lozol®) reduce calcium excretion by the kidneys which in turn can raise blood calcium levels too high. But loop diuretics (such as Lasix® and Bumex®) increase calcium excretion and thereby lower blood calcium levels.

•    Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium increase calcium loss in the urine.

•    Mineral oil and stimulant laxatives reduce calcium absorption.

•    Glucocorticoids (such as prednisone) can cause calcium depletion and eventually osteoporosis when people use them for months at a time.

Tell your doctor, pharmacist, and other health care providers about any dietary supplements and medicines you take.

Benefit from Calcium

Needed for the formation and maintenance of bones

the development of teeth and healthy gums

It is necessary for blood clotting, stabilizes many body functions

It has a natural calming and tranquilizing effect

It is necessary for maintaining a regular heartbeat and the transmission of nerve impulses

Helps with lowering cholesterol, muscular growth, the prevention of muscle cramps and normal blood clotting.

Helps with protein structuring in DNA and RNA

Provides energy, breaks down fats, maintains proper cell membrane permeability

Aids in neuromuscular activity and helps to keep the skin healthy

Calcium also stops lead from being absorbed into bone

Helps lower body weight or reduce weight gain over time

Some exocytosis, especially neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction

The electrical conduction system of the heart,

How Much Calcium

The amount of calcium you need each day depends on your age. Average daily recommended amounts are listed below in milligrams (mg):

Birth to 6 months    200 mg
Infants 7–12 months    260 mg
Children 1–3 years    700 mg
Children 4–8 years    1,000 mg
Children 9–13 years    1,300 mg
Teens 14–18 years    1,300 mg
Adults 19–50 years    1,000 mg
Adult men 51–70 years    1,000 mg
Adult women 51–70 years    1,200 mg
Adults 71 years and older    1,200 mg
Pregnant and breastfeeding teens    1,300 mg
Pregnant and breastfeeding adults    1,000 mg

Food rich in Calcium and Warning

Phosphorus, sodium, alcohol, coffee, and white flour aids the loss of calcium from the body. Too much protein, fat and sugars can have a negative effect with the absorption Tetracycline and calcium bond together which impairs the absorption of both.

Milk, milk products (yogurt, and cheese), beans, nuts and seeds (like almonds and sesame), molasses and fruit, seafood and Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and salmon. Green leafy vegetables Kale, broccoli, and Chinese cabbage, collard greens, okra; rutabaga; broccoli; dandelion leaves; Most grains (such as breads, pastas, and unfortified cereals), seaweeds such as kelp, wakame and hijiki, figs; quinoa; amaranth; fortified products such as orange juice and soy milk. source of calcium is eggshell, which can be ground into a powder and mixed into food or a glass of water.

Calcium is added to some breakfast cereals, fruit juices, soy and rice beverages, and tofu. To find out whether these foods have calcium, check the product labels.


It is recommended to take one to two parts of calcium and phosphorus to one part of magnesium. Vitamin D and vitamin A are beneficial to have around this nutrient and it is great when taking a supplement that it is chelated with amino acids.


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Chloride is formed when chlorine iron and its salts such as sodium chloride are very soluble in water but is also a dietary mineral needed by the body for optimum health.

Chloride is a chemical the human body needs for metabolism (the process of turning food into energy)

It also helps keep the body’s acid-base balance. The amount of chloride in the blood is carefully controlled by the kidneys

Many water regulating companies around the world utilize chloride to check the contamination levels of the rivers and potable water sources. Chloride is also a useful and reliable chemical indicator of river / groundwater fecal contamination

Common symptoms of Chloride deficiency

A deficiency of chloride is extremely rare and unlikely to occur but a deficiency of chlorine in the body may cause excessive loss of potassium in the urine, weakness and lowered blood pressured.

When you suffer from vomiting, diarrhea and excessive sweating you might be in need of extra chlorine.

Common symptoms of Chloride Toxicity

A high concentration of chloride in the body may result in fluid retention, but sodium is normally the culprit for the retention.


Benefit from Chloride

Control the flow of fluid in blood vessels and tissues, as well as regulating acidity in the body, and also forms part of hydrochloric acid in the stomach

It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating fluid in and out of cells

Used to form salts that can preserve food such as sodium chloride

it Is also the prosthetic group present in the amylase enzyme.

How Much Chloride

Food rich in Chloride

Chloride is found in table salt as well as kelp, olives, tomatoes, celery


Chloride in the diet works with potassium and sodium




Magnesium is a chemical element. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust.

Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body and is essential to good health.

Magnesium is a vital component of a healthy human diet. it is essential to all cells of all known living organisms.

They play a major role in ATP, DNA, and RNA.

Magnesium ions are essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of life Hundreds of enzymes thus require magnesium ions to function.

This mineral does hundreds of important jobs in your body. Magnesium plays an important role in at least 300 fundamental enzymatic reactions and for that reason is of vital importance in our health.

People whose diets are rich in magnesium have a lower risk of heart disease and stroke.

50% of total body magnesium is found in bone.

Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (e.g., milk of magnesia), and in a number of situations where stabilization of abnormal nerve excitation and blood vessel spasm is required (e.g., to treat eclampsia).

Magnesium ions are sour to the taste, and in low concentrations help to impart a natural tartness to fresh mineral waters.

Magnesium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.

Magnesium is largely excreted through the urine, although most magnesium “administered orally” is excreted through the feces

Common symptoms of Magnesium deficiency

You shouldn’t need a magnesium supplement. For older people, or those not eating a balanced diet, a basic multi-vitamin/mineral provides sufficient supplemental magnesium.

Development of a number of human illnesses such as asthma, diabetes, and osteoporosis

Can lead to depression. suicidal depression and in patients that have attempted suicide

Gastrointestinal disorders that impair absorption such as Crohn’s disease can limit the body’s ability to absorb magnesium

Chronic or excessive vomiting and diarrhea

Excessive loss of magnesium in urine can be a side effect of some medications and can also occur in cases of poorly-controlled diabetes and alcohol abuse

Can be cause by mal-absorption, chronic alcoholism, renal dysfunction

Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting

People under stress have low magnesium levels, indicating that magnesium may be beneficial to those under stress

numbness, tingling, muscle contractions and cramps, seizures (sudden changes in behaviors caused by excessive electrical activity in the brain)

Abnormal heart rhythms, and coronary spasms can occur

Low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia)

Low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia)

Rapid heartbeats as well as fatigue, weakness, irritability, and seizure can occur. Insomnia, poor memory, painful periods, depression, hypertension and confusion

Certain medications can cause neuromuscular manifestations, and personality changes can occur.

Many of these symptoms are general and can result from a variety of medical conditions other than magnesium deficiency. It is important to have a physician evaluate health complaints and problems so that appropriate care can be given.

Some medicines may result in magnesium deficiency, including certain diuretics, antibiotics, and medications used to treat cancer (anti-neoplastic medication) Diuretics: Lasix, Bumex, Edecrin, and hydrochlorothiazide, Antibiotics: Gentamicin, and Amphotericin, Anti-neoplastic medication: Cisplatin, high levels of zinc, vitamin C and vitamin D

Common symptoms of Magnesium Toxicity

Excess magnesium in the blood is filtered at the kidneys, and for this reason it is difficult to overdose on magnesium from dietary sources , but magnesium toxicity increases with kidney failure, when the kidney loses the ability to remove excess magnesium.

Signs of excess magnesium can be similar to magnesium deficiency and include changes in mental status, nausea, diarrhea, appetite loss, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, extremely low blood pressure, and irregular heartbeat

With supplements, overdose is possible, however, particularly in people with poor renal function; occasionally, with use of high cathartic doses of magnesium salts, severe hypermagnesemia has been reported to occur even without renal dysfunction.

Alcoholism can produce a magnesium deficiency, which is easily reversed by oral or parenteral administration, depending on the degree of deficiency.

If you have kidney or heart problems first check with your medical practitioner before taking a magnesium supplement as an over supply can in severe cases lead to coma and death.


Benefit from Magnesium

Magnesium helps with formation of bone and teeth and assists the absorption of calcium and potassium

Calcium stimulates the muscles, magnesium is used to relax the muscles

Having enough body stores of magnesium may be protective against disorders such as cardiovascular disease and immune dysfunction

Helping to regulate blood pressure.

Involved in the activity of the heart muscle and the nerves that initiate the heartbeat

People who live in areas with hard water, which is high in magnesium, have a lower death rate from coronary artery disease.

Helps prevent depression, dizziness, muscle twitching, and pre-menstrual syndrome

It can help prevent the calcification of soft tissue and may help prevent cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and certain forms of cancer, and it may reduce cholesterol levels

Helps regulate blood sugar levels,it is used for muscle tone of the heart and assists in controlling blood pressure

have been claimed to be therapeutic for some individuals who suffer from Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS)

helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady

Supports a healthy immune system

keeps bones strong

Involve in energy metabolism and protein synthesis

preventing and managing disorders such as hypertension, and diabetes

Magnesium bromide is used as a mild sedative

Treat of migraine, headaches.

Needed for cellular metabolism and the production of energy

Its help with enzyme activity

Magnesium assists the parathyroid gland to process vitamin D, and a shortage here can cause absorption problems with calcium

*Magnesium borate, magnesium salicylate, and magnesium sulfate are all used as antiseptics

How Much Magnesium

Males 19-30 years 400 mg per day
Males >30 years 420 mg
Females 19-30 years 310 mg
Females >30 years 320 mg.

Food rich in Magnesium

*the center of the chlorophyll molecule (which gives green vegetables their color) contains magnesium

Tap water (the amount varies according to the water supply and “Hard” water contains more magnesium than “soft” water)

Whole grains and unrefined grains, nuts (cashews, Almonds, Peanuts, , beans (Kidne, Pinto), Rice, Lentils, seeds sunflower, fish(Halibut and cod), seafood, lean meats, poultry, eggs, wide variety of legumes, leafy green vegetables, spinach, Swiss chard, Avocado, Soybeans, Potato, variety of fruits (Banana, Raisins, apples, apricots,), Peanut butter, dairy products: Yogurt, plain, skim milk, Chocolate (cocoa)


It is best taken with calcium, iron, B group vitamins as well as vitamin E.

with vitamin B 12, it may prevent calcium oxalate kidney stones.




Phosphorus is present in the body and can be found mainly in teeth and bones and keep muscles and nerves working properly

85% of the body’s phosphorus is found in bone

It is an essential mineral is required for all known forms of life and by every cell in the body for normal function

Playing a major role in biological molecules such as DNA and RNA where it forms part of the structural framework of these molecules.

Phospholipids are the main structural components of all cellular membranes

Living cells also use phosphate to transport cellular energy

Dietary phosphorus is readily absorbed in the small intestine, and any excess phosphorus absorbed is excreted into urine by the kidneys

Common symptoms of Phosphorus deficiency

Abnormally low blood phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia); The effects of hypophosphatemia may include loss of appetite, anemia, muscle weakness, bone pain, rickets (in children), osteomalacia (in adults), increased susceptibility to infection, numbness and tingling of the extremities, and difficulty walking. Severe hypophosphatemia may result in death.

Painful bones

Irregular breathing

Fatigue, anxiety


Skin sensitivity

Changes in body weight

Increased risks of high blood pressure and bowel cancer


Diabetics or recovering from an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis

Starving or anorexic patients on refeeding regimens that are high in calories but too low in phosphorus

Aluminum hydroxide used in antacids may interfere with the absorption of phosphorus

Adult men found that a diet high in fructose (20% of total calories) resulted in increased urinary loss of phosphorus and a negative phosphorus balance

Common symptoms of Phosphorus Toxicity

Ingesting dosages of phosphorus exceeding 3 to 4 grams may be harmful as it can interfere with calcium absorption, such as the high level in fizzy soda drinks.

Low-phosphate syndromes are caused by malnutrition, by failure to absorb phosphate, and by metabolic syndromes that draw phosphate from the blood (such as re-feeding after malnutrition) or pass too much of it into the urine.

Calcification of non-skeletal tissues, most commonly the kidneys, calcium phosphate deposition can lead to organ damage, especially kidney damage.

Increased intestinal absorption of phosphate salts taken by mouth, as well as due to colonic absorption of the phosphate salts in enemas

Aluminum-containing antacids reduce the absorption of dietary phosphorus by forming aluminum phosphate, can produce abnormally low blood phosphate levels

Potassium supplements or potassium-sparing diuretics taken together with a phosphate may result in high blood levels of potassium (hyperkalemia). can be a serious problem, resulting in life threatening heart rhythm abnormalities (arrythmias).

Cause blood calcium levels to drop

Itching (arms, legs, back, chest)

Red eyes

Continuous bone pain: especially hips, knees, ankles and heels

Bones that break easily

Blood vessels become clogged with calcium that should be in the bones.

Sores that won’t heal

strokes, and heart attacks


Calcification (hardening) of organs and soft tissue

Interfere with the body’s ability to use iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc

Concerned about the increasing amounts of phosphates in the diet which can be attributed to phosphoric acid in soft drinks and phosphate additives in a number of commercially prepared foods Blood phosphate levels can rise especially after meals

Reduce the formation of the active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) in the kidneys, reduce blood calcium, and lead to increased PTH release by the parathyroid glands

Lead to decreased urinary calcium excretion

Elevated PTH levels could have an adverse effect on bone mineral content, observed in humans on diets that were high in phosphorus and low in calcium. elevated PTH levels have been reported in diets that were low in calcium without being high in phosphorus


Benefit from Phosphorus

Very involved with bone and teeth formation

Most metabolic actions in the body, including kidney functioning, cell growth and the contraction of the heart muscle

All energy production and storage are dependent major structural components of cell membranes

Enzymes, hormones, and cell signaling molecules depend on phosphorylation for their activation

helps to maintain normal acid-base balance (pH) in its role as one of the body’s most important buffers

Red blood cells and affects oxygen delivery to the tissues of the body

The main inorganic component of bone calcium phosphate salts assist in stiffening bones

Cell membranes are composed largely of phospholipids. While it, assists the body in vitamin use (especially some B group vitamins)

involved in converting food to energy

How Much Phosphorus

Males 800 mg per day

Females 800 mg per day

Food rich in Phosphorus

Protein foods are also high in phosphorus, but it is important for you to get the protein you need so the phosphorus in these foods are included in your daily allowance.

Meat, Turkey. poultry and fish, as well as eggs, seeds, milk (Yogurt, Cheese), carbonated soft drinks, broccoli, apples, carrots, asparagus, Spinach, Sweet Potato, bran, brewer’s yeast and corn, all plant seeds (beans, peas, cereals, and nuts like Almonds, Peanuts, Lentils)


A ratio of 2:1 in the diet between phosphorus and calcium can cause low blood calcium levels.

Calcium and phosphorus must be taken in balance or a deficiency might be formed. Vitamins D and A as well as iron, manganese together with protein and unsaturated fatty acids increase the effectiveness of phosphorus.




Potassium is the chemical element with the symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) it is an extremely import mineral. It should be in balance with the sodium in your body. It is helpful in reducing blood pressure and preventing strokes.

Potassium is important in maintaining the proper acid-alkaline balance of our bodies.

Potassium is the most important dietary electrolytes we all require to maintain health. It is easily lost in the urine, and if large amounts of salt is ingested, it may be wise to take a potassium supplement.

Over 95% of potassium in the body is found within cells. In contrast, most of the sodium in the body is located outside the cells in the blood and other fluids.

Potassium acts with magnesium as a muscle relaxant in opposition to calcium. It helps transmit nerve impulses and aids in the release of insulin from the pancreas.

Potassium can be detected by taste according to concentration. Dilute solutions of potassium ions taste sweet, allowing moderate concentrations in milk and juices, while higher concentrations become increasingly bitter/alkaline, and finally also salty to the taste.

Common symptoms of Potassium deficiency

Dietary potassium deficiency is caused by a diet low in fresh fruits and vegetables but high in sodium

It is more common to see dietary potassium deficiency in the elderly, or can be cause by excessive fluid loss (sweating, diarrhea or urination) or the use of diuretics, laxatives, aspirin, and other drugs

If you suffer from diabetes, or suffer from kidney problems do not take a potassium supplement without your doctors consent

The kidneys excrete any excesses of potassium

fatigue, cramping legs, slow reflexes, acne, dry skin, mood changes irregular heartbeat.

Heart disturbances and abnormalities, alkalosis and cardiac arrhythmia respiratory weakness,

tingling sensations in the skin, and apathy Vomiting, diarrhea or extreme sweating

if you eat mostly processed foods, large intake of caffeine, alcohol,

if you take diuretic pills or laxatives

Depletion occurs whenever the rate of loss of potassium through urinary excretion, sweat, or the gastrointestinal tract (vomiting or diarrhea) intestinal problems (especially abdominal bloating)

People who take a diuretic to help reduce blood pressure is associated with increased risk of stroke, but diets high in potassium can reduce the risk of hypertension and possibly stroke (by a mechanism independent of blood pressure)

Getting too much sodium chloride (table salt) in the diet, coupled with diminished dietary potassium, is a common cause of high blood pressure muscle weakness, fatigue, mental confusion, irritability, weakness, problems in nerve conduction and muscle contraction lower levels of stored glycogen

Surgery may cause excessive loss of potassium

Excesses of sodium or magnesium paralytic ileus hypokalemia ECG abnormalitiesd ecreased reflex response respiratory paralysis

For bodybuilding, potassium is needed to maintain your muscles in good form, controlling your muscle actions, and potassium is lost in excessive sweating and urine. You should increase your potassium intake like banana, citrus fruit or even a dash of apple cider vinegar. Athletes or people who regularly exercise have higher potassium needs. Because up to 3 g of potassium can be lost in one day by sweating, a daily intake of at least 4 g of potassium is recommended for these individuals.

Common symptoms of Potassium Toxicity

Excessive potassium can be toxic, but is mainly a problem when you suffer from a problem such as kidney failure as the kidneys control potassium excretion, renal dialysis. Too much sodium in the diet can lead to disruption of this balance between consume sodium and potassium Affect your heart,


the Cardiovascular Health Study over a four- to eight-year period. They found that those who consumed the least potassium were one and a half times more likely to have a stroke than those who took in more potassium. Those who were taking diuretics and had low levels of potassium had a 2.5 times greater risk of stroke than those with high levels. High-potassium, low-sodium diet can protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease Numerous studies have demonstrated that a low-potassium, high-sodium diet plays a major role in the development of cancer and cardiovascular disease (heart disease, high blood pressure, strokes, etc.) Conversely, a diet high in potassium and low in sodium is protective against there diseases, and in the case of high blood pressure it can be therapeutic. Supplements of potassium in medicine are used in conjunction with loop diuretics and thiazides

“There is no medicine that will effectively prevent nuclear radiations from damaging the human body cells that they strike.

However, a salt of the elements potassium and iodine, taken orally even in very small quantities 1/2 hour to 1 day before radioactive iodines are swallowed or inhaled, prevents about 99% of the damage to the thyroid gland that otherwise would result. The thyroid gland readily absorbs both non-radioactive and radioactive iodine, and normally it retains much of this element in either or both forms.

When ordinary, non-radioactive iodine is made available in the blood for absorption by the thyroid gland before any radioactive iodine is made available, the gland will absorb and retain so much that it becomes saturated with non-radioactive iodine. When saturated, the thyroid can absorb only about l% as much additional iodine, including radioactive forms that later may become available in the blood: then it is said to be blocked. (Excess iodine in the blood is rapidly eliminated by the action of the kidneys.)”

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) stated July 1, 1998 in USE OF POTASSIUM IODIDE IN EMERGENCY RESPONSE:

Benefit from Potassium

It needed for growth, building muscles, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity

Water Balance and distribution

Maintain the electrical charge within the cell

Acid-base balance

Muscle and nerve cell function Heart function

Kidney and adrenal function essential for the conversion of blood sugar into glycogen, the storage form of blood sugar found in the muscles and liver.

Potassium cations are important in neuron (brain and nerve) function, and in influencing osmotic balance between cells and the interstitial fluid, the highly selective potassium ion channels (which are tetramers) are crucial for the hyperpolarization

Potassium, with sodium, work together for the nervous system to transmit messages as well as regulating the contraction of muscles

Higher potassium levels help in preventing kidney stones

Increasing dietary potassium intake can lower blood pressure.

How Much Potassium

A daily intake of about 3,500 milligrams is needed. Potassium is well absorbed, but is not stored in large quantities in the body.

Food rich in Potassium

It is mostly concentrated in fruits.

But can generally be guaranteed by eating a variety of foods:

Vegetables as well as whole grains (Breads, cereals), citrus fruit, molasses, fish and unprocessed meats, bananas, milk and green leafy vegetables, Carrots, Potatoes, Apples, Oranges, avocados, dried apricots, parsley, chocolate, nuts (especially almonds and pistachios) bamboo shoots, soybeans, tomato paste, beet greens, white beans,

Potassium is lost from food when canning


A person should take twice as much potassium as sodium, and is best taken with vitamin B6.




Sodium is a metallic element with a symbol Na from Latin natrium.

It is required by the body, it uses sodium to regulate blood pressure and blood volume.

The most common sodium salt, sodium chloride (‘table salt’ or ‘common salt’), is used for seasoning and warm-climate food preservation,

The serum sodium and urine sodium play important roles in medicine, both in the maintenance of sodium and total body fluid homeostasis, and in the diagnosis of disorders causing homeostatic disruption of salt/sodium and water balance.

Common symptoms of Sodium deficiency

A deficiency is rare, but can easily happen, Hyponatremia is an electrolyte imbalance and is indicated by a low level of sodium in the blood.

Diarrhea, vomiting or excessive sweating, nausea, dizziness, poor concentration and muscle weakness

taking lithium for the control of bipolar depression should not be on a sodium restricted diet

A sudden episode of confusion, or disorientation

Muscle weakness

Poor appetite that does not improve

Shortness of breath, chest pain or discomfort; should be evaluated immediately

Water intoxication (water replacement without replacement of blood electrolytes)

Kidney, heart or liver problems. Slightly disoriented, Confusion, or coma,

Drugs – such as diuretics, Heparin, certain chemotherapy drugs (Aminoglutethimide, Cyclophosphamide and Vincristine)

Conditions related to steroid, hormone or defects in your metabolism such as:

Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) – This occurs when a hormone, ADH, is not being properly regulated. You may be urinating frequently, and your kidneys are excreting too much sodium. This may occur as a result of many conditions, including certain types of lung cancer.

Common symptoms of Sodium Toxicity

Excessive sodium may cause high blood pressure, which may lead to a host of health problems

Excessive long-term use of sodium may also cause a loss of calcium from your body

Consuming large amounts of sodium, should look at ingesting extra potassium to balance it or to counteract high blood pressure

Additional magnesium and calcium is also advised if you have high blood pressure and you’re over the age of 45,

Restricting your salt intake if you’re younger, or if your pressure is normal,

May lead to a serious build-up of fluid in people with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, or kidney disease.


Severe dehydration caused by diarrhea, such as that by cholera, can be treated with oral rehydration therapy, in which they drink a solution of sodium chloride, potassium chloride and glucose. This simple, effective therapy saves the lives of millions of children annually in the developing world.

Benefit from Sodium

Regulate blood pressure and blood volume

Maintains the right balance of fluids in the body, transmits nerve impulses, influences the contraction and relaxation of muscles

Critical for the functioning of nerves maintaining osmotic equilibrium and the acid-base balance

Required in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which protects the body from any infections that may be present in food.

How Much Sodium

An amount of about 2,400 milligrams is needed daily.

Table salt is 40% sodium; 1 teaspoon of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium.

Healthy adults should limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day while individuals with high blood pressure should consume no more than 1,500 mg per day. Those with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease may need much lower amounts.

Food rich in Sodium

Sodium occurs naturally in most foods.

The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt

Vegetables, anchovies, bacon, milk, drinking water

Sodium is also added to various food products. Some of these added forms: monosodium glutamate, sodium nitrite, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate.

These are ingredients in condiments and seasonings such as :

Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, onion salt, garlic salt, and bouillon cubes.

Processed meats, such as bacon, sausage, and ham, and canned soups and vegetables are all examples of foods that contain added sodium.

Fast foods are generally very high in sodium.

Table salt is 40% sodium; 1 teaspoon of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium.

Healthy adults should limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day while individuals with high blood pressure should consume no more than 1,500 mg per day or 2/3 of a teaspoon.

Those with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease may need much lower amounts.


A person should consume about half the amount of sodium in relation to potassium and is best taken with vitamin D.



Sulfur is an essential element for all life, and is used in biochemical processes. In metabolic reactions, sulfur compounds serve as both fuels and respiratory (oxygen-replacing) materials for simple organisms

It plays an important part, as a carrier of reducing hydrogen and its electrons, for cellular repair of oxidation.

Sulfur, an acid-forming, non-metallic element is not treated as an essential mineral, since there are no specific deficiency symptoms

It is the hydrogen sulfate in onions that causes us to weep when cutting or peeling them.

Sulfur is a mineral that is present in all cells. Food contains sulfur, and the need for this mineral is met when there is an adequate protein in our diet,

Sulfur in organic form is present in the vitamins biotin, thiamine. It part of the chemical structure of the amino acids methionine, cysteine, taurine and glutathione.

It is further needed in the synthesis of collagen, which is needed for good skin integrity.

Sulfur is an important part of many enzymes and in antioxidant molecules

Common symptoms of Sulfur deficiency

Deficiencies will only really happen if a diet is deprived of protein, or a poorly planned vegan diet, and a protein shortage is more likely to happen than a sulfur deficiency.

Sulfur is said to clean the blood and to help protect us against toxic build-up

Sluggishness and Fatigue

Arthritis, acne, dry skin, inflammation, wrinkles

Remedying a sulfur deficiency can significantly slow aging

Common symptoms of Sulfur Toxicity

None reported.


Benefit from Sulfur

The body stores sulfur in the brain, nerves, bowel, liver, and in all cells

Protects the whole body against the harmful effects of toxins, radiation, and pollution

It is found in the hair, nails skin

Used to detoxify the body

Assist the immune system and fight the effects of aging

Age related illnesses such as arthritis

Cartilage and keratin of skin and healthy hair, skin and nails, it also helps maintain oxygen balance for proper brain function

Purify and tone system and promote bile secretion

Constituent of essential amino-acids

It is a mild laxative, thus preventing constipation

Helps treat rheumatism, gout and bronchitis

Use in the treatment of skin diseases

Keeps skin young and beautiful, essential in collagen creation, a protein that gives skin its structure

Acts as a flexible bond between cells and as a joint lubricant

How Much Sulfur

850 mg. / day

Food rich in Sulfur

Sulfur is sensitive to heat and moisture

Sulfur is normally found in protein foods, such as egg yolks, garlic, lettuce, cabbage, kale and Brussels sprouts. Garlic, onions, cauliflower, legumes, asparagus, dried beans, nuts, chives, fish, eggs

Oyster have fair content of cholesterol but contain high density lipoprotein, thus prevents platelets stickiness and clumping


Sulfur is best used with the B group vitamins

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