Trace Elements

Trace Elements

Silicon (Silica)




Boron is a newcomer to nutritional supplements and is used to help with menopausal symptoms as well as maintaining healthy bones, since its affinity to calcium and magnesium.

Common symptoms of Boron deficiency

A shortage of boron might negatively influence the balance of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus resulting in bone loss, and increasing the risk of arthritis and elevated blood pressure

Common symptoms of Boron Toxicity

Ingesting Boron-containing preparations have resulted in dryness of the skin and digestive upsets, but low dose supplements have shown no toxic effect yet


Benefit from Boron

It enhances the body’s ability to use calcium, magnesium, as well as vitamin D

It assist in brain functioning and recognition

Boron seems to prevent calcium and magnesium from being lost in the urine

Help with decreasing menstrual pain by increasing the oestradiol level, which is a very active type of estrogen

People have also reported the reduction of arthritis symptoms with an intake of Boron

Boron has not been shown clinically to build muscles, although some people firmly believe that it does

How Much Boron

No daily value has been set, but 1 – 2 milligrams per day may be beneficial, although up to 10 milligrams does seem safe

Food rich in Boron

When eating a diet of refined foods, you may be lacking in boron. Prunes, dates, raisins and honey, nuts, fresh fruit such as grapes and pears, green leafy vegetables and beans are good sources or Boron


Best taken with manganese, calcium and Vitamin B2 (remember you need Vitamin B6 with Vitamin B12)




Chromium is an essential nutrient required for normal sugar and fat metabolism and works primarily by potentiating the action of insulin. It is present in the entire body but with the highest concentrations in the liver, kidneys, spleen and bone. Although chromium is only required in very small amounts, our modern day diet has left many people short of chromium on a daily basis, with the average American being chromium deficient, and two out of three being hyperglycemic, pre-hyperglycemic or diabetic.

Common symptoms of Chromium deficiency

A shortage of chromium may also lead to anxiety, fatigue, glucose intolerance (particularly in people with diabetes), inadequate metabolism of amino acids, and an increased risk of arteriosclerosis

Common symptoms of Chromium Toxicity

Because chromium is not easily absorbed (chromium picolinate is the best absorbed) and since it is lost easily in the urine, toxicity does not seem to be a problem, but dermatitis has been noted, as well gastrointestinal ulcers as well as liver and kidney damage if taken in large dosages over prolonged periods

If you are diabetic, do not supplement with chromium, as it can make your blood sugar levels drop

Some people have reported a skin rash and lightheadedness – if this occurs, stop taking the supplement and consult your medical practitioner


Benefit from Chromium

Chromium is needed for energy, maintains stable blood sugar levels. In cooperation with other substances, it controls insulin as well as certain enzymes. It works with GTF (Glucose Tolerance Factor) when this hormone-affiliated agent enters the bloodstream because of an increase of insulin in the bloodstream. GTF (containing niacin, vitamin B3, glycine, cysteine, glutamic acid etc.) enhances insulin, which results in the sugars passing quicker into the cells and in that way they are removed from the bloodstream. By stabilizing the blood sugar level it also assists in regulating the cholesterol in the blood

Natural chromium levels decline with age and so with the action of the GTF. Although chromium picolinate is readily absorbed by the body, and is one of the best types of chromium when it comes to absorption, it will only be absorbed it if there is a shortage of chromium.

Chromium picolinate has been used as a carbohydrate-burning supplement for some time and has proved very successful. (Chromium picolinate is chromium chelated with picolinate – a natural amino acid metabolite) It is also required in synthesis of fats, protein and carbohydrates, and may assist in preventing coronary artery disease.

Should you be suffering from overweight, high cholesterol, exercise heavily or have sugar cravings, you might benefit from a chromium supplement. Chromium picolinate is chromium chelated with picolinate – a natural amino acid metabolite and is helpful in assisting with the loss of fat and increased lean muscle tissue

How Much Chromium

120 microgram per day is indicated as dosage.

Food rich in Chromium

Chromium absorption is made more difficult when milk, as well as when foods high in phosphorus are eaten at the same time. Chromium is found in eggs, beef, whole grains, brewer’s yeast as well as molasses.


It is best taken with vitamin B 3, glycine, cysteine and glutamic acid.




Cobalt is part of the vitamin B 12 molecule

Common symptoms of Cobalt deficiency

If a normal diet is followed a deficiency is most unlikely

Common symptoms of Cobalt Toxicity

An excessively high intake of cobalt may damage the heart muscles, and may cause an over-production of red blood cells or damage to the thyroid gland.


preventing anemia

Benefit from Cobalt

It is required in the manufacture of red blood cells

How Much Cobalt

Food rich in Cobalt

Cobalt is present in pulses and vegetables


Since cobalt is part of the vitamin B12 molecule, the function of cobalt is interwoven with that of vitamin B 12




Copper and zinc absorption is closely related, and although copper is also needed in relatively small amounts, some discussions are under way on the optimum need of this mineral. If large amounts of copper are present, then zinc and vitamin C is reduced in the body, and vice versa.

Common symptoms of Copper deficiency

It can be stored in the body, and daily presence in the diet is therefore not necessary. If copper is deficient in the body, iron is also normally in short supply, leading to anemia as well as the likelihood for infections, osteoporosis, thinning of bones, thyroid gland dysfunction, heart disease as well as nervous system problems

Should extra zinc supplements be taken, your need for copper may be increased

The absorption of large amounts of vitamin C, zinc can negatively influence the level of copper in the body, while large amounts of fructose can make a copper deficiency worse

Common symptoms of Copper Toxicity

Toxic levels will lead to diarrhea, vomiting, liver damage as well as discoloration of the skin and hair, fatigue, irritability, depression and loss of concentration and learning disabilities

Children getting too much copper may have hyperactive tendencies.


Benefit from Copper

Copper is required in the formation of hemoglobin, red blood cells as well as bones, while it helps with the formation of elastin as well as collagen – making it necessary for wound healing

A lack of copper may lead to increased blood fat levels

It is necessary for the manufacture of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline as well as for the pigmentation of your hair. How Much Copper

In the case of micro-elements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important and about 2 mg per day is required.

Food rich in Copper

Copper is made available from a variety of foods, such as whole grain, liver, molasses, and nuts, but water from copper pipes will also carry copper in it, and copper cooking utensils will also add more copper to be ingested. Be careful of having any liquids stored in copper containers, as the liquid could have absorbed too much of the copper.


Copper is best absorbed and utilized in the body when cobalt, iron, zinc and folic acid is available.




Fluorine is a constituent of bones and teeth, but since it is very seldom added to supplements, we have not included a large volume of data on this element. Common symptoms of Fluorine deficiency

Common symptoms of Fluorine Toxicity

Excess fluorine stains the teeth with mottled spots – known as dental fluorosis. Oncology/Medicine

Benefit from Fluorine

It is beneficial in most cases in preventing dental caries, but the addition of fluoride to drinking water has become a controversial subject in some societies. There is some evidence that it is effective in the treatment of osteoporosis, as an increase in the retention of calcium was noted, together with a reduction of bone demineralization, by some people treated with fluorine salts.

How Much Fluorine

The dosage determined to prevent dental caries, without marking the teeth is set at 1 mg Fl/L. Food rich in Fluorine

It is found in water as well as the food grown in areas where fluorine is present in the soil and water.





Iodine in our food is dependant on the iodine found in the ground where the food is grown, in the food the animals receive, as it influences the iodine content in the meat and eggs we consume.

Common symptoms of Iodine deficiency

Iodine is not stored in the body, but various items in our diet do supply iodine, so a shortage does not happen often

When iodine is deficient the thyroid gland enlarges (referred to as a goiter) to maximize the amount of iodine to be extracted from the blood, and if this problem is not corrected, a shortage of this hormone in the body may lead to constipation, obesity, weakness, mental slowness as well as mental problems. Goiter is not always the cause of iodine deficiency, but can in some cases be caused certain micro-organisms

Iodine help protect the thyroid from the effects of radiation, and the Polish government handed out iodine tablets to their population after the explosion at Chernobyl. Too low levels of iodine can cause a goiter, so too can too high intake of iodine. When iodine in the soil is very low, or if very little seafood is consumed a person may want to check their iodine intake

When breast feeding or pregnant as well as being on a sea-salt restricted diet. If you have an under-active thyroid try and avoid large amounts of raw cabbage, peaches, pears, spinach and Brussels sprouts as they may block the absorption of iodine.

Common symptoms of Iodine Toxicity

Iodine is rapidly eliminated from the body, so high intake or toxicity is not very likely, but if your diet is supplement with too much kelp or iodine you could have problems with acne or skin rashes. Oncology/Medicine Some indication also exists that iodine is helpful in preventing cancer of the breast and womb.

Benefit from Iodine

Iodine is used in the production of hormones (such as thyroxine, thyroxin) by the thyroid gland, which in turn regulates the conversion of fat to energy, stabilizing our body weight as well as controlling our cholesterol levels. These hormones produced from the iodine are also needed to help form our bones, as well as keeping our skin, nails, hair and teeth in prime condition.

How Much Iodine

150 micrograms per day is indicated as dosage.

Food rich in Iodine

Iodine is found in eggs, milk, sea fish and sea food, sea vegetables – such as kelp, asparagus etc.





Iron is an essential element carrying oxygen, forming part of the oxygen-carrying proteins – hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscles. It is also a component of various enzymes and is concentrated in bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Common symptoms of Iron deficiency

Severe iron deficiency results in anemia, and red blood cells that have a low hemoglobin concentration

Anemia in pregnancy increases the risk of having a premature baby or a baby with low birth weight

In young children, iron deficiency can manifest in behavioral abnormalities (including reduced attention), reduced cognitive performance and slow growth

In adults, severe iron deficiency anemia impairs physical work capacity.

Symptoms of iron deficiency may include fatigue, poor stamina, intestinal bleeding, excessive menstrual bleeding, nervousness, heart palpitations and shortness of breath.

It may also cause your mouth corners to crack, brittle hair, difficulty in swallowing, digestive disturbances and spoon shaped nails with ridges running lengthwise

Iron absorption is negatively affected when oxalic acid – found in spinach, Swiss chard, tea, coffee soy and some pulses

Antacid medication, coffee and tea drinkers at mealtimes, people on calorie restricted diets and women with a heavy flow during menstruation may require more iron. Try to cut out tea and coffee at mealtimes.

Iron supplements should not be taken together with calcium, zinc or vitamin E if in the form of ferrous sulfate.

Common symptoms of Iron Toxicity

High iron content in the body has been linked to cancer and heart disease

People of European origin, sometimes have a genetic abnormality for storing excessive iron (1:300) where ten percent of these populations carry a gene for hemochromatosis. Iron supplements are the leading cause of death in children – so keep the supplements out of the reach of children

A fatal dose for children could be as little as 600 milligrams. Iron can be poisonous and if too much is taken over a long period could result in liver and heart damage, diabetes and skin changes

Large iron supplementation may also contribute to the hardening of arteries, heart disease and reducing zinc absorption

Some research being conducted is to test the possibility of high iron stores in the body being responsible for an increased risk to chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease, through oxidative mechanisms.


Benefit from Iron

The production of hemoglobin and myoglobin (the form of hemoglobin found in muscle tissue) requires this nutrient. It is also needed for the oxygenation of red blood cells, a healthy immune system and for energy production.

How Much Iron

dosage for males is 10 mg per day, and 18 mg per day for females.

Food rich in Iron

Heme iron (present in red blood cells and muscles) found in meat, poultry and fish – is readily absorbed; Non-heme iron – with the absorption more influenced by other dietary factors, are present in cereals, fruits, grains, beans and vegetables.


Iron should be taken between meals with Vitamin C, while manganese, copper, molybdenum, vitamin A and the B group are also beneficial. Iron in a supplement should be almost balanced with zinc.




Manganese is one of those humble trace elements so often overlooked, yet essential to your health. Common symptoms of Manganese deficiency Deficiencies are rare but would include poor bone growth, problems with the disks between the vertebrae, birth defects, and problems with blood glucose levels and reduced fertility. Serious deficiency in children can result in paralysis, deafness and blindness. Manganese is not easily absorbed but since small amounts are needed deficiencies are not very general.

Common symptoms of Manganese Toxicity

Toxicity by diet is rare. Miners who are exposed to high levels of manganese, which can also be inhaled, can cause “manganese madness”. A higher intake may be necessary when breast-feeding or when taking a calcium or phosphorous supplement.


Benefit from Manganese

It enables the body to utilize vitamin C, B1, biotin as well as choline. It is used in the manufacture of fat, sex hormones and breast milk in females. It is thought to also help neutralize free radicals as well as being of assistance in preventing diabetes and needed for normal nerve function. Manganese is also indicated in stimulating growth of the connective tissue and is also thought to be of importance in brain functioning.

How Much Manganese

dosage is 2 milligrams per day.

Food rich in Manganese

It is found in nuts, avocados, eggs, brown rice, spices, whole grains, leafy greens as well as tea and coffee. Manganese is lost in milling and absorption is also negatively influenced in the presence of large amounts of calcium, phosphorous, zinc, cobalt and soy protein. Manganese is depleted in the soil by extensive use of chemical fertilizers or too much lime, and food grown in such soil will have a low manganese content.


It is best taken with vitamins B1, E, calcium as well as phosphorous.




Molybdenum is a component of three different enzymes, which is involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids – DNA and RNA – iron as well as food into energy. These three enzymes are sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase

Common symptoms of Molybdenum deficiency

Deficiencies of molybdenum are identified by the absence of the three molybdenum enzymes. The deficiency of this element and the metabolic disorders are accompanied by abnormal excretion of sulfur metabolites, low uric acid concentrations, and elevated hypoxanthine and xanthine excretion

The absences of sulfite oxidase in metabolic disorder can lead to death at an early age

High rates of esophageal cancer have been reported in regions where the soil levels of molybdenum are low as well as vitamin C intake – If your diet consists mainly of refined foods or if you are taking copper supplements, you might be running low on molybdenum

Common symptoms of Molybdenum Toxicity

Dosages of more than 15 milligrams may be toxic and excess molybdenum in the body can interfere with the metabolism of copper in the body, can give symptoms of gout, and may cause diarrhea, anemia and slow growth. Oncology/Medicine molybdenum might be involved with prevention of certain cancers.

Benefit from Molybdenum

Molybdenum assists in the breaking down of sulfite toxin build-ups in the body, found in protein food as well as chemical preservatives in certain foods and drugs.your body may react with an allergic reaction. These allergic reactions can be respiratory problems such as asthma and others

There might be evidence of antioxidant properties in this nutrient

It may prevent cavities

It assists the body by fighting the nitrosamines, which are associated with cancer, and may help to prevent anemia

It is needed for normal cell function and nitrogen metabolism.

Molybdenum deficiencies in older males have also been linked to impotence and may be of value in fighting mouth and gum disorders

Molybdenum is part of sulfite oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down sulfites.

Molybdenum is also part of xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase – both involved in the body’s production of geneticmaterial and proteins. Xanthine oxidase also helps the body to oxidize purines and pyrimidines, and produce uric acid, an important waste product.

How Much Molybdenum

dosage of up to 250 micrograms is considered safe while 15 milligrams can border on toxic.

Food rich in Molybdenum

Milk, lima beans, spinach, liver, grain, peas and other dark green leafy vegetables contain molybdenum. Heat and moisture change supplemental molybdenum.


An excess of copper, tungsten and sulfates can deplete molybdenum.




Selenium used can be a very toxic substance

An overdose or deficiency of selenium is equally bad, and good steady amounts should be available – but in small quantities

Common symptoms of folate deficiency

Men need more selenium than women as it is lost in the seminal fluid, and people staying in areas where the soil is poor in selenium, should also pay attention to their selenium intake.

Common symptoms of Vitamin A Toxicity

Slenium is toxic and too large quantities may result in hair loss, tooth decay, brittle nails, white spots, poor appetite, sour taste in the mouth, loss of feeling in the hands and feet, change in skin pigmentation and the breath may have a garlic smell

People with yeast intolerance should check the source of the selenium used in the supplement, as certain manufacturers obtain selenium from yeast.


Benefit from Folic Acid

One of the main activities of this mineral is its anti-aging properties and its ability to help rid the body of free radicals, as well as toxic minerals such as mercury, lead and cadmium

It is helpful in fighting infections since it stimulates increased antibody response to infections, promotes more energy in the body, and while it helps with alleviating menopausal symptoms in women, it assists the male in producing healthy sperm

Helping to fight cold sores and shingles, which are both caused by the herpes virus

Help to keep the spread and multiplying of viruses in check

It is used against arthritis and multiple sclerosis and if provided in adequate amounts

help prevent cancer

Tissue elasticity and pancreatic function is also dependant on this mineral

Could be useful in treating certain cancers

Help in making the blood less “sticky”, which is helpful in preventing heart attacks and strokes

How Much Vitamin D

70 micrograms per day is taken as the required dosage

Food rich in Folic acid

Brazil nuts are excellent sources of selenium, but are also found in whole grains, shellfish


Selenium should always be taken with vitamins E, A and beta-carotene

it is preferable when taking a supplement to take selenium in the form of selenocysteine or selenomethionine, which are both organic.


Silicon (Silica)


Silicon is not present in the body in large amounts, but it’s is present in every type of tissue in the body

Silicon is also called silica and is a natural substance

silicone is a man-made industrial polymer used in breast enlargement or replacment operations

Common symptoms of Silicon deficiency

Deficiency may result in problems with teeth and bones as well as hardening of the arteries.

Common symptoms of Silicon Toxicity



Benefit from Silicon

Silicon is used to keep bones, cartilage, tendons and artery walls healthy and may be beneficial in the treatment of allergies, heartburn and gum disease, as well as assisting the immune system

It is required by the nails, hair and skin to stay in good condition

Useful in counteracting the effects of aluminum

Silicon levels drop as we age, and it might therefore be beneficial as an anti-aging component in our diets

How Much Silicon

Food rich in Silicon

Silicon is present in onions, wheat, oats, millet, barley, rice, beetroot, alfalfa as well as leafy green vegetables and whole grains


Boron, calcium, magnesium, manganese and potassium are indicated as the best nutritional partners for this mineral



Zinc is one of the minerals men should never be without and has such a wide application in human health that everybody should ensure that they obtain enough of this humble trace element

Common symptoms of Zinc Deficiency

There is a shortage of zinc in many people’s diet, zinc is destroyed in the milling process and in cooking.

A deficiency will result in an under-performing immune system, open to infections, allergies, night blindness, loss of smell, falling hair, white spots under finger nails, skin problems, sleep disturbances

Men with zinc shortage may have a problem with fertility, while women may experience irregular periods. Children with too little zinc may have stunted growth and slow sexual maturity. With too little in the body, the sense of smell might suffer, as well as your sense of taste. Men should always ensure enough zinc in their diets, since the health of their prostate gland is linked to zinc. Zinc is needed to manufacture testosterone and a shortage may induce a low sperm count, loss of libido and other emotional problems. Zinc may also be helpful in fighting infection and inflammation of the prostate gland in older men. It is lost on ejaculation, since sperm needs this mineral to swim towards the egg. If a women is taking a birth control pill, or receiving hormone replacement therapy, extra zinc may be indicated, and all vegans and vegetarians should also consider their zinc intake, as well as people suffering from psoriasis and women while pregnant or lactating. People consuming large amounts of alcohol may also be at risk of lowered zinc levels.

Common symptoms of Zinc Toxicity

Elevated intake of zinc (1- 2 gram per day) over an extended period can actually harm your immune system instead of assisting it. Intake of zinc should be kept to under 100 mg per day as larger amounts may result in nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness and hallucinations. It is best to take a zinc supplement separately from other minerals, especially iron, copper, manganese and calcium as they may interfere with zinc absorption. Some people take it at night, but some individuals may react by having an upset stomach if taken on an empty stomach. In a multi-vitamin situation, make sure that the zinc and iron is nearly in the same amounts. Large intakes of zinc can cause nausea and diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, fever and chills, electrolyte imbalances, dizziness, abdominal pain, lethargy and a disruption of coordination.


Benefit from Zinc

It is necessary for a healthy immune system, and is also of use in fighting skin problems such as acne, boils and sore throats. It is further needed for cell division, and is needed by the tissue of the hair, nails and skin to be in top form. Zinc is further used in the growth and maintenance of muscles. Children, for normal growth and sexual development also require zinc. It also seems as if zinc helps to control the oil glands, and is also required for the synthesis of protein and collagen – which is great for wound healing and a healthy skin. Sucking zinc tablets may help with fighting a cold, although some people experience nausea from sucking these tablets.

How Much Zinc

Food rich in Zinc

Great sources are found in muscle meat, poultry, fish and seafood, while grains, nuts, eggs, seeds and brewer’s yeast also supply good quality zinc. Meat is a better source of zinc as certain whole grains contain phytic acid, which binds to zinc, making it un-absorbable and zinc is also lost through excessive sweating.


A good combination in nutrition would be adequate levels of copper, calcium, phosphorous, selenium, vitamin A, B6 and E.

We Accept

Translate »