Water-soluble Vitamins

h Water-soluble Vitamins

Vitamin H (Biotin)

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Vitamins B1 

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobamin, Cobalamin)

Vitamin C


Vitamin H (Biotin)


Biotin is a water-soluble B-Complex vitamin. Biotin is also called vitamin H (the H represents “Haar und Haut”, German words for “hair and skin”) or vitamin B7

Biotin is necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids. It helps the body to process fat and sugars, and it helps form a critical process in fat production in the body

It plays a role in the citric acid cycle, which is the process by which biochemical energy is generated during aerobic respiration

Biotin assists in various metabolic reactions and helps to transfer carbon dioxide

Biotin may help in maintaining a steady blood sugar level

Biotin is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails. It why, it is found in many cosmetics and health products for the hair and skin, but Biotin cannot be absorbed through the hair or skin itself.

Biotin deficiency is rare because, in general, intestinal bacteria produce biotin in excess of the body’s daily requirements.
Biotin is particularly necessary for pregnant women,

National health experts recommend 30 micrograms of biotin a day for pregnant and lactating women. Because this is a water-soluble compound, it can’t easily be saved in the body long-term, so it’s important to get it into a regular diet. Biotin can be found naturally in food such as cauliflower, nuts, sardines, legumes, brewer’s yeast, egg yolk and kidney and liver meats.

Common symptoms of biotin deficiency include:

• Hair loss (alopecia)

• Conjunctivitis

• Dermatitis in the form of a scaly red rash around the eyes, nose, mouth, and genital area.

• Neurological symptoms in adults such as depression, lethargy, hallucination, and numbness and tingling of the extremities.

• The characteristic facial rash, together with an unusual facial fat distribution, has been termed the “biotin-deficient face” by some experts. Individuals with hereditary disorders of biotin deficiency have evidence of impaired immune system function, including increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections.

• Pregnant women tend to have a high risk of biotin deficiency. Numbers of studies reported that this possible biotin deficiency during the pregnancy may cause infants’ congenital malformations such as cleft palate.

• Depression,

• Loss of appetite,

• Hallucinations,

• Numbness in body extremes,

• Fatigue and lethargy.

Common symptoms of vitamin H Toxicity

Benefits from Biotin

Biotin Blood Sugar:

Diabetics may benefit from biotin supplementation. In both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics, supplementation with biotin can improve blood sugar control and help lower fasting blood glucose levels; in some studies, the reduction in fasting glucose exceeded 50 percent. Biotin can also play a role in preventing the neuropathy often associated with diabetes, reducing both the numbness and tingling associated with poor glucose control.

Biotin Hair & Nail Growth:

The signs and symptoms of biotin deficiency include hair loss, which progresses in severity to include loss of eyelashes and eyebrows in severely deficient subjects, as well as nails that break, chip, or flake easily. Thicker and stronger hair and healthier nails may be seen within several months, depending on rate of growth. Some shampoos are available that contain biotin, but it is doubtful whether they would have any useful effect, as biotin is not absorbed well through the skin.

Biotin Palmo Plantar Pustulosis:

Patients with palmoplantar pustulosis had metabolic derangements of glucose and fatty acids as well as immune dysfunction derived from biotin deficiency, which led to abnormal manifestations of skin, bone and other tissues and organs. All of the clinical, metabolic, and immune disorders were improved by biotin administration. These findings indicate that biotin deficiency was implicated in the outbreak and exacerbation of the disease and its complications. Supplementary addition of a probiotic agent to the biotin treatment intensified the therapeutic effect of the vitamin. Additionally, patients with psoriasis vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus, atopic dermatitis or rheumatoid arthritis also had biotin deficiency with the subsequent metabolic abnormalities and immune dysfunction, and so the biotin treatment provided beneficial effects in the therapy of the diseases, as in the case of palmoplantar pustulosis.

Cradle cap (seborrheic dermatitis):

Children with a rare inherited metabolic disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU; in which one is unable to break down the amino acid phenylalanine) often develop skin conditions such as eczema and seborrheic dermatitis in areas of the body other than the scalp. The scaly skin changes that occur in people with PKU may be related to poor ability to use biotin. Increasing dietary biotin has been known to improve seborrheic dermatitis in these cases.

Metabolism Benefits:

Biotin crucial role in energy metabolism. Biotin acts as a coenzyme and carries carbon dioxide. It also plays a role in fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism and glycogen synthesis.

Weight loss:

may be another biotin benefit, as the vitamin is essential in the conversion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins to energy.


How Much Vitamin Biotin

8 Foods Rich in Biotin:
The above are some of the healthiest ways to introduce biotin into a regular diet that will provide general health benefits

1. Swiss Chard – This green plant is a top producer of biotin. It’s also a great part of a healthy salad choice that will provide antioxidants and help balance a diet.

2. Carrots – Carrots contain a supply of biotin, as well as beta-carotene, which helps with general eye health.

3. Almonds, Walnuts and Other Nuts – A variety of nuts supply the body with biotin, and are a portable way to get proteins and other nutrition into a diet.

4. Chicken Eggs – Eggs are a source of biotin, although it’s important to note that eating a diet unusually high in egg whites can actually be a catalyst for a biotin deficiency. That’s because a specific element in the egg whites binds to the element and prevents it from being distributed properly. It’s important to always consider how eggs are added to a diet in order to prevent this kind of vitamin deficiency.

5. Goat’s Milk and Cow’s Milk – In addition to calcium and other healthy items, milks are also a source of biotin for the body.

6. Berries and Fruits – Some types of berries, including strawberries and raspberries, can get the body a significant amount of biotin. These fruits also provide antioxidants and health benefits, as part of a natural, whole food approach to eating. Experts recommend buying local and organic when possible.

7. Halibut – In addition to being “brain food,” this fish also contains large amounts of biotin. Think about adding it as an occasional entre.

8. Vegetables – Other vegetables like onions, cucumbers and cauliflower all contain biotin, and are healthy ways to fit this vitamin into meals.

9. Sardines

10. Brewer’s yeast

11. Egg yolk

12. Kidney and liver meats


Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)


Folic Acid is known as vitamin B9, vitamin Bc[ or folacin) and folate. Folic Acid is essential to numerous bodily functions. The human body needs folate to synthesize DNA, repair DNA, and methylate DNA as well as to act as a cofactor in biological reactions involving folate. It is especially important in aiding rapid cell division and growth, such as in infancy and pregnancy. Children and adults both require folic acid to produce healthy red blood cells and prevent anemia. Folate is necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells, for DNA synthesis and RNA synthesis, and for preventing changes to DNA, and, for preventing cancer.

Common symptoms of folate deficiency

• Glossitis, diarrhea, macrocytic anaemia with weakness or shortness of breath, nerve damage with weakness and limb numbness (peripheral neuropathy),

• Pregnancy complications,

• Mental confusion, forgetfulness or other cognitive declines, mental depression,

• Sore or swollen tongue, peptic or mouth ulcers,

• Headaches,

• Heart palpitations, irritability, and behavioural disorders.

• Low levels of folate can also lead to homocysteine accumulation. DNA synthesis and repair are impaired and this could lead to cancer development.

• Folic acid leads to folate deficiency. NTD. (Neural tube defects) NTD is the abnormality in the fetus that can occur during pregnancy. It is a defect that involves the skull and the spinal column.

• Causes low red blood cell production, which causes anemia.

• Excess folate may promote tumor initiation. Folate has shown to play a dual role in cancer development; low folate intake protects against early carcinogenesis, and high folate intake promotes advanced carcinogenesis.Therefore, public health recommendations should be careful not to encourage too much folate intake.

Common symptoms of vitamin B9Toxicity

Benefit from Folic Acid


• Folate is necessary for fertility in both men and women. In men, it contributes to spermatogenesis. In women, on the other hand, it contributes to oocyte maturation, implantation, placentation

• Women who could become pregnant are advised to eat foods fortified with folic acid or take supplements in addition to eating folate-rich foods to reduce the risk of serious birth defects.

• Adequate folate intake during the preconception period, the time right before and just after a woman becomes pregnant, helps protect against a number of congenital malformations, including neural tube defects (which are the most notable birth defects that occur from folate deficiency. Neural tube defects produce malformations of the spine, skull, and brain including spina bifida and anencephaly. The risk of neural tube defects is significantly reduced when supplemental folic acid is consumed in addition to a healthy diet prior to and during the first month following conception.

• Supplementation with folic acid has also been shown to reduce the risk of congenital heart defects, cleft lips, limb defects, and urinary tract anomalies.

• Folate deficiency during pregnancy may also increase the risk of preterm delivery, infant low birth weight and fetal growth retardation, as well as increasing homocysteine level in the blood, which may lead to spontaneous abortion and pregnancy complications, such as placental and pre-eclampsia

• Folic acid may also reduce chromosomal defects in sperm

Heart disease

• Taking folic acid does not reduce cardiovascular disease even though it reduces homocysteine levels.

• Folic acid supplements consumed before and during pregnancy may reduce the risk of heart defects in infants, and may reduce the risk for children to develop metabolic syndrome. That may, however, worsen the outcomes in people with cardiovascular disease such as angina and myocardial infarction.


• Folic acid appears to reduce the risk of stroke. The reviews indicate the risk of stroke appears to be reduced only in some individuals, but a definite recommendation regarding supplementation beyond the current RDA has not been established for stroke prevention. Observed stroke reduction is consistent with the reduction in pulse pressure produced by folate supplementation of 5 mg per day, since hypertension is a key risk factor for stroke. Folic supplements are inexpensive and relatively safe to use, which is why stroke or hyperhomocysteinemia patients are encouraged to consume daily B vitamins including folic acid.


• Some investigations have proposed good levels of folic acid may be related to lower risk of oesophageal, stomach, and ovarian cancers, but the benefits of folic acid against cancer may depend on when it is taken and on individual conditions. In addition, folic acid may not be helpful, and could even be damaging, in people already suffering from cancer or from a precancerous condition
• Diets high in folate are associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer; some studies show the association is stronger for folate from foods alone than for folate from foods and supplements, colorectal cancer is the most studied type of cancer in relation to folate and one carbon metabolism. For example, folic acid supplement intake increased advanced colorectal cancer development by 67% in a 14-year European research study involving 520,000 men.


• Folate is important for cells and tissues that rapidly divide. Cancer cells divide rapidly, and drugs that interfere with folate metabolism are used to treat cancer. The antifolate methotrexate is a drug often used to treat cancer because it inhibits the production of the active form of THF from the inactive dihydrofolate (DHF). However, methotrexate can be toxic, producing side effects, such as inflammation in the digestive tract that make it difficult to eat normally. Also, bone marrow depression (inducing leucopoenia and thrombocytopenia), and acute renal and hepatic failure have been reported.


• Depression: Limited evidence from randomised controlled trials showed using folic acid in addition to antidepressants, specifically SSRIs, may have benefits. Research at the University of York and Hull York Medical School has found a link between depression and low levels of folate. Folic acid supplementation affects noradrenalin and serotonin receptors within the brain, which could be the cause of folic acid’s possible ability to act as an antidepressant.

• Folate deficiency may increase the risk of schizophrenia, the exact mechanisms involved in the development of schizophrenia are not entirely clear, but may have something to do with DNA methylation and one carbon metabolism, and these are the precise roles of folate in the body.

Macular degeneration

• Folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin decreased the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration by 34.7%

B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 and folic acid, The National Institutes of Health has found that “Large amounts of folic acid can mask the damaging effects of vitamin B12 deficiency by correcting the megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency without correcting the neurological damage that also occurs”, there are also indications that “high serum folate levels might not only mask vitamin B12 deficiency, but could also exacerbate the anemia and worsen the cognitive symptoms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. To counter the masking effect of B12 deficiency the NIH recommends “folic acid intake from fortified food and supplements should not exceed 1,000 micrograms (1000 µg = 1 mg) daily in healthy adults.”

it is important for older adults to be aware of the relationship between folic acid and vitamin B12, because they are at greater risk of having a B12 deficiency. For this reason, a physician may wish to check the vitamin B12 status of patients 50 years of age or older before prescribing them a supplement that contains folic acid.


Some studies show iron-folic acid supplementation in children under 5 may result in increased mortality due to malaria; this has prompted the World Health Organization to alter their iron-folic acid supplementation policies for children in malaria-prone areas, such as India.


How Much Vitamin

Biotin supplements are available in most pharmacies. The recommended dose is about 5000mcg to 7500mcg per day.

Food rich in Folic acid

Asparagus, avocados, beans, beets, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, bok choy cabbage, corn, endive, garbanzo beans, lentils, peas, romaine lettuce, spinach, sprouts, tomatoes, tomato juice turnip greens, wheat germ and green leafy vegetables. Vegetable juice

Bananas, citrus fruits, citrus juices, pineapple, pineapple juice, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, grapefruit, grapefruit juice, raspberry, grapefruit and strawberry

Fortified grain products (pasta, cereal, bread)

Liver, Kidney

Baker’s yeast (bread)

Brewer’s yeast (beer)

Sunflower seeds

Egg yolks.

Folic acid is added to grain products in many countries, and, in these countries, fortified products make up a significant source of the population’s folic acid intake


Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin C work together to help the body digest and use proteins, and to synthesize new proteins as needed.

Vitamin B12 and folic acid, The National Institutes of Health has found that “Large amounts of folic acid can mask the damaging effects of vitamin B12 deficiency by correcting the megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency without correcting the neurological damage that also occurs”, there are also indications that “high serum folate levels might not only mask vitamin B12 deficiency, but could also exacerbate the anemia and worsen the cognitive symptoms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)


Niacin (also known as vitamin B3, nicotinic acid and vitamin PP) Niacin blocks the breakdown of fats in adipose tissue. These fats are used to build very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in the liver, which are precursors of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or “bad” cholesterol. Because niacin blocks the breakdown of fats, it causes a decrease in free fatty acids in the blood and, as a consequence, decreases the secretion of VLDL and cholesterol by the liver. By lowering VLDL levels, niacin also increases the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or “good” cholesterol in blood, and therefore it is sometimes prescribed for people with low HDL, who are also at high risk of a heart attack. As with all B complex vitamins, it’s water-soluble and doesn’t stay in the body. It must be ingested on a daily basis through diet (foods) and/or supplements.

Common symptoms of vitamin B3 deficiency include:

Niacin deficiency is sometimes seen in developed countries, and it is usually apparent in conditions of poverty, malnutrition, and chronic alcoholism.

Mild niacin deficiency has been shown to slow metabolism, causing decreased tolerance to cold

Pellagra, which is characterized by diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia, as well as “necklace” lesions on the lower neck, hyper pigmentation, thickening of the skin, inflammation of the mouth and tongue, digestive disturbances, cracked and dry skin, canker sores, vomiting, amnesia, delirium, frequent indigestion and eventually death, if left untreated.

Psychiatric symptoms of niacin deficiency include irritability, poor concentration, anxiety, fatigue, restlessness, apathy, and depression.

Patients with alcoholic pellagra, niacin deficiency may be an important factor influencing both the onset and severity of this condition. Alcoholic patients typically experience increased intestinal permeability, leading to negative health outcomes.

Hartnup’s disease is a hereditary nutritional disorder resulting in niacin deficiency

It is due to a deficit in the intestines and kidneys, making it difficult for the body to break down and absorb dietary tryptophan. The resulting condition is similar to pellagra, including symptoms of red, scaly rash, and sensitivity to sunlight. Oral niacin is given as a treatment for this condition in doses ranging from 40–200 mg, with a good prognosis if identified and treated early

Common symptoms of vitamin B3 Toxicity

Niacin does not produce side effects, but in high doses, niacin can produce uncomfortable hot “flush” over the body, vomiting, indigestion, and diarrhea. If left unchecked, potential liver damages.

Benefit from vitamin B3

• One of the many benefits of niacin is it helps raise HDL or good cholesterol level and decreases the bad cholesterol. When this happens, you may lower your risk of developing heart diseases. People with high cholesterol levels should see improvements once their follow the proper diet

• Niacin also helps with energy production, converting carbohydrates into glucose.

• Help the body create adrenal hormones, with detoxification, and maintains the digestive tracts. You can’t properly metabolize carbohydrate or protein without niacin, and it’s also necessary for proper digestive function and blood circulation

• Help to maintain a healthy nervous system, liver, eyes, mouth, nails, skin and hair.
Prevention of cancer, protecting the body from diabetes, slowing the progression of HIV.

How Much Vitamin

Food rich in vitamin B3

Niacin is found in variety of foods, including liver, chicken, beef, fish, cereal, peanuts and legumes, and is also synthesized from tryptophan, which is found in meat, dairy and eggs.

Animal products:

• Beef liver, heart and kidney
• Chicken
• Beef
• Fish: tuna, salmon
• Eggs

Fruits and vegetables:

• Avocados
• Dates
• Tomatoes
• Leaf vegetables
• Broccoli
• Carrots
• Sweet potatoes
• Asparagus


• Nuts
• Whole grain products
• Legumes
• Saltbush seeds


• Mushrooms
• Brewer’s yeast


• Vegemite (from spent brewer’s yeast)
• Brewed espresso coffee


Niacin works best with the others in the family “B vitamin”, such as thiamine, riboflavin. It’s best to take a B complex supplement containing all the vitamins in the family, not just niacin on its own. The amount of niacin in the average B complex formulation is usually somewhat above the recommended daily allowance, but is still safe so that it should cause no side effects.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)


Pantothenic acid, also called pantothenate or vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), as well as the “anti-stress vitamin” is part of the B group vitamins and classified as a water-soluble vitamin. This nutrient can be manufactured in the body by the intestinal flora. Pantothenate in the form of 4’phosphopantetheine is considered to be the more active form of the vitamin in the body. Pantothenate is essential for humans and animals for growth, reproduction, and normal physiological functions.

Common symptoms of Vitamin B5 deficiency

Symptoms like nausea, tingling in the hands, and cardiac instability have been reported.

Include increased insulin sensitivity, lowered blood cholesterol, decreased serum potassium, and failure of adrenocorticotropin to induce eosinopenia.


depression, personality changes, fatigue, headaches.

Frequent infection

abdominal pains, sleeps disturbances and neurological disorders including numbness, paresthesia (abnormal sensation such as “burning feet” syndrome), muscle weakness and cramps are also possible indications that this nutrient is in short supply.

Testicular torsion

can severely affect fertility, a treatment of 500 mg of dexpanthenol/kg body weight 30 minutes prior to detorsion can greatly decrease the risk of infertility after torsion. Pantothenic acid has the ability to spare reduced glutathione levels. Reactive play a role in testicular atrophy, which glutathione counteracts

Diabetic ulceration

Foot ulceration is a problem commonly associated with diabetes, which often leads to amputation. A preliminary study indicated that perhaps a royal jelly and panthenol ointment can help cure the ulceration. People with foot ulceration or deep tissue infection in the study had a 96% and 92% success rate of recovery.

Hypolipidemic effects

Pantothenic acid derivatives, panthenol, phosphopantethine and pantethine, have also been seen to improve the lipid profile in the blood and liver. All three derivatives were able to effectively lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL), as well as triglyceride (TG) levels; panthenol was able to lower total cholesterol, and pantethine was able to lower LDL-cholesterol in the serum. The decrease in LDL is significant, as it is related to a decrease the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. In the liver, panthenol was the most effective; as it lowered TG, total cholesterol, free cholesterol and cholesterol-ester levels.

Wound healing

pantothenic acid has an effect on wound healing in vitro. Layers Cell proliferation or cell multiplication was found to increase with pantothenic acid supplementation.

Hair care, skin irritation, and loss of hair colour

as possible results of severe pantothenic acid deficiency. As a result, the cosmetic industry began adding pantothenic acid to various cosmetic products, including shampoo. These products, however, showed no benefits in human trials


high doses of vitamin B5 resolved acne and decreased pore size. Dr. Leung also proposed a mechanism, stating that CoA regulates both hormones and fatty acids, and without sufficient quantities of pantothenic acid, CoA will preferentially produce androgens. This causes fatty acids to build up and be excreted through sebaceous glands, causing acne.


it was hypothesized that pantothenic acid also has an effect on weight management. Those who were deficient in pantothenic acid would feel the effects of hunger and weakness more strongly. To access fat storages in the body in times of fasting or dieting requires Coenzyme A. Diets high in pantothenic acid produce more Coenzyme A. In a study done on 100 Chinese individuals from age range 15–55 it was observed that on a diet of 1000 calories a day and 10 g pantothenic acid, the dieters could lose on average 1.2 kg/week with lessened effects from hunger or weakness. Ketone bodies in urine indicated that some dieters required more than 10 g of pantothenic acid a day. The possibilities of pantothenic acid in weight management have not been fully explored, but remain an area of research.

Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy;

treated with alpha-lipoic acid for peripheral polyneuropathy reported further improvement after combination with pantothenic acid. The theoretical basis for this is that both substances intervene at different sites in pyruvate metabolism and are more effective than one substance alone. Additional clinical findings indicated diabetic neuropathy may occur in association with a latent prediabetic metabolic disturbance, and that the symptoms of neuropathy can be favourably influenced by the described combination therapy, even in poorly controlled

Common symptoms of vitamin B5 Toxicity

Large doses of the vitamin, when ingested, have no reported side effects and massive doses (e.g., 10 g/day) may only yield mild intestinal distress, and diarrhea at worst.
It does not appear to be toxic in high dosage, although diarrhea, digestive disturbances, and water retention have been reported on dosage exceeding 10 g a day. Taking 1,500 mg a day over an extended period may cause sensitivity to the teeth.

Benefit from Vitamin B5

• Vitamin B5 plays an important role in the secretion of hormones, such as cortisone because of the role it plays in supporting the adrenal gland. These hormones assist the metabolism, help to fight allergies and are beneficial in the maintenance of healthy skin, muscles and nerves.

• Pantothenic acid is also used in the release of energy as well as the metabolism of fat, protein and carbohydrates. It is used in the creation of lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and haemoglobin.

• Pantothenic acid is also helpful to fight wrinkles as well as greying of the hair.


How Much Vitamin

Food rich in Vitamin B5

Small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in most foods.

With high amounts: saltwater fish, torula yeast, whole rye flour, whole-grain cereals, eggs, meat (poultry, Pork, Beef, organ meats, lobsters, poultry), royal jelly, and yogurt.

Vegetables, such as broccoli and avocados, mushroom, lentils, split peas, soybeans, and sweet potato

Pantothenic acid loss during processing is significant, as it is stable in neutral solution but is readily destroyed by heat in either alkali or acid.


It is most effective when taken with the B group vitamins, Vitamin A, vitamin C and Vitamin E.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)


Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2 or additive E101,[1] is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in humans and animals. It is the central component of the cofactors FAD and FMN, and is therefore required by all flavo-proteins. As such, vitamin B2 is required for a wide variety of cellular processes. It plays a key role in energy metabolism, and for the metabolism of fats, ketone bodies, carbohydrates, and proteins. Aids in the formation of antibodies and red blood cells; maintains cell respiration; necessary for the maintenance of good vision, skin, nails & hair; alleviates eye fatigue; promotes general health. Riboflavin is best known visually as the vitamin, which imparts the orange colour to solid B-vitamin preparations, the yellow colour to vitamin supplement solutions, and the unusual fluorescent-yellow colour to the urine of persons who supplement with high-dose B-complex preparations (no other vitamin imparts any colour to urine). Riboflavin is continuously excreted in the urine of healthy individuals

Common symptoms of vitamin B2 deficiency

Riboflavin deficiency is always accompanied by deficiency of other vitamins. Poor vitamin sources in one’s daily diet – or secondary, which may be a result of conditions that affect absorption in the intestine, the body not being able to use the vitamin, or an increase in the excretion of the vitamin from the body.

• Cracked and red lips, inflammation of the lining of mouth and tongue, mouth ulcers, crack at the corners of the mouth (angular cheilitis), and a sore throat. A deficiency may also cause dry and scaling skin, fluid in the mucous membranes, and iron-deficiency anemia. The eyes may also become bloodshot, itchy, watery and sensitive to bright light. Trembling; sluggishness; oily skin.

• Riboflavin deficiency is classically associated with the oral-ocular-genital syndrome. Angular cheilitis, photophobia, and scrotal dermatitis are the classic remembered signs.

• In children this deficiency results in reduced growth.

• Riboflavin deficiency has also been observed in women taking oral contraceptives.

• In the elderly, in people with eating disorders, and in disease states such as HIV, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes and chronic heart disease.

• Extra might be needed when consuming alcohol, antibiotics, and birth control pills or doing strenuous exercise.

• If you are under a lot of stress or on a calorie-restricted diet, this vitamin could also be of use.

Common symptoms of vitamin B2Toxicity

Riboflavin is not toxic when taken orally, as its low solubility keeps it from being absorbed in dangerous amounts within the digestive tract. Although toxic doses can be administered by injection, any excess at nutritionally relevant doses is excreted in the urine, imparting a bright yellow color when in large quantities. In humans, there is no evidence for riboflavin toxicity produced by excessive intakes, though it helps relieve muscle pain. 400 mg/d of riboflavin was given orally to subjects in one study for three months to investigate the efficacy of riboflavin in the prevention of migraine headache, no short-term side effects were reported.

Benefit from vitamin B2

• Riboflavin supplements have been used as part of the phototherapy treatment of neonatal jaundice. The light used to irradiate the infants breaks down not only bilirubin, the toxin causing the jaundice, but also the naturally occurring riboflavin within the infant’s blood, so extra supplementation is necessary.

• High dose riboflavin appears to be useful alone or along with beta-blockers in the prevention of migraine. A dose of 400 mg daily has been used effectively in the prophylaxis of migraines, especially in combination with a daily supplement of magnesium citrate 500 mg and, in some cases, a supplement of coenzyme Q10.

• Riboflavin has also been used as a muscle pain reliever.

• Riboflavin in combination with UV light has been shown to be effective in reducing the ability of harmful pathogens found in blood products to cause disease. Riboflavin and UV light treatment has been shown to be effective for inactivating pathogens in platelets and plasma, and is under development for application to whole blood. Because platelets and red blood cells do not contain a nucleus (i.e. they have no DNA to be damaged) the technique is well suited for destroying nucleic acid containing pathogens (including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and white blood cells) in blood products.

• Riboflavin has been used in a new treatment to slow or stop the progression of the corneal disorder keratoconus. This is called corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). Riboflavin drops are applied to the patient’s corneal surface. Once the riboflavin has penetrated through the cornea, ultraviolet a light therapy is applied. This induces collagen cross-linking, which increases the tensile strength of the cornea. The treatment has been shown in several studies to stabilize keratoconus. It eases watery eye fatigue and may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of cataracts. Vitamin B2 is required for the health of the mucus membranes in the digestive tract and helps with the absorption of iron and vitamin B6.

• Riboflavin is further needed to activate vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), helps to create niacin and assists the adrenal gland. It may be used for red blood cell formation, antibody production, cell respiration, and growth.

• Is needed for periods of rapid growth, it is also needed when protein intake is high, and is most beneficial to the skin, hair and nails.

• Dermatitis, dizziness, hair loss, insomnia, light sensitivity, poor digestion, retarded growth, and slow mental responses have also been reported. Burning feet can also be indicative of a shortage.


How Much Vitamin

Food rich in vitamin B2

Riboflavin is yellow or yellow-orange in color and in addition to being used as a food coloring, it is also used to fortify some foods. It is used in baby foods, breakfast cereals, pastas, sauces, processed cheese, fruit drinks, vitamin-enriched milk products, and some energy drinks.

Asparagus, popcorn, bananas, persimmons, okra, chard, cottage cheese, milk, yogurt, lean meat, eggs, fish, and green beans (particularly on the ends), each of which contain at least 0.1 mg of the vitamin per 3–10.5 oz (85–300 g) serving.(5). Other sources specify nuts, cheese, leafy green vegetables, liver, kidneys, legumes, tomatoes, yeast, mushrooms, and almonds. Yeast extract is considered to be exceptionally rich in vitamin B2

Milk, cheese, leafy green vegetables, liver, kidneys, legumes, tomatoes, yeast, mushrooms, and almonds[2] are good sources of vitamin B2, but exposure to light destroys riboflavin. So milk sold in transparent (glass/plastic) bottles will likely contain less riboflavin than milk sold in opaque containers.

Riboflavin is generally stable during the heat processing and normal cooking of foods if light is excluded. The alkaline conditions in which riboflavin is unstable are rarely encountered in foodstuffs. Riboflavin degradation in milk can occur slowly in dark during storage in the refrigerator.


Riboflavin is best taken with B group vitamins and vitamin C.
However, please note – if taking a B2 supplement make sure that the B6 amount is nearly the same.
Riboflavin is further needed to activate vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)


Thiamine or thiamin or vitamin B1 also named as the “thio-vitamine” (“sulfur-containing vitamin)” is a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, is used in many different body functions and deficiencies may have far reaching effects on the body, yet very little of this vitamin is stored in the body, and depletion of this vitamin can happen within 14 days.

Plays a key role in the body’s metabolic cycle for generating energy; aids in the digestion of carbohydrates; essential for the normal functioning of the nervous system, muscles & heart; stabilizes the appetite; promotes growth & good muscle tone. The brain requires a much greater amount of thiamine than in other cells of the body.

Common symptoms of vitamin B1 deficiency

• A lack of thiamine can be caused by malnutrition, associated with chronic diseases, such as alcoholism, gastrointestinal diseases, HIV-AIDS, and persistent vomiting. It is thought that many people with diabetes have a deficiency of thiamine and that this may be linked to some of the complications that can occur.

• Thiamine deficiency would seem to adversely affect all of the organ systems. However, the nervous system and the heart are particularly sensitive to thiamine deficiency, because of their high oxidative metabolism.

• May lead to the loss of appetite; severe fatigue of eyes and myriad problems including neurodegeneration, wasting, and death, vague aches & pains; mental depression & constipation; heart & gastrointestinal problems.

• A deficiency will result in beriberi (Beriberi is a neurological and cardiovascular disease) and minor deficiencies may be indicated with extreme fatigue, irritability, weakness & feeling tired; paralysis & nervous irritability; insomnia; edema, and an enlarged liver. Forgetfulness, labored breathing, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (alcohol amnestic disorder) as well as varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Diseases also common with chronic alcoholism; And is the most frequently encountered manifestation of thiamine deficiency in Western society, though it may also occur in patients with impaired nutrition from other causes, such as gastrointestinal disease, those with HIV-AIDS, and with the injudicious administration of parenteral glucose or hyper alimentation without adequate B-vitamin supplementation. This is a striking neuro-psychiatric disorder characterized by paralysis of eye movements, abnormal stance and gait, and markedly deranged mental function.

• A person may also experience nervousness, numbness of the hands and feet, pain and sensitivity, poor coordination, tingling sensations, weak and sore muscles, and severe weight loss.

• Genetic diseases of thiamine, Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) with diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness; Leigh disease (subacute necrotising encephalomyelopathy) is an inherited disorder that affects mostly infants in the first years of life and is invariably fatal. Subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy, opsoclonic cerebellopathy (a paraneoplastic syndrome), and Nigerian seasonal ataxia. In addition, several inherited disorders of ThDP-dependent enzymes have been reported, which may all respond to thiamine treatment.

Common symptoms of Vitamin A Toxicity

Thiamine toxicity is uncommon, as excesses are readily excreted, although long-term supplementation of amounts larger than 3 grams have been known to cause toxicity
Benefit from vitamin B1
Thiamine is also a miraculous nutrient, somebody suffering from beriberi, scarcely able to lift their head from their pillow, will respond quickly from injected thiamine, and will be on their feet within a matter of hours.

May enhance circulation, helps with blood formation,

The metabolism of carbohydrates.

The health of the nervous system and is used in the biosynthesis of a number of cell constituents, including the neurotransmter acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

Used in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid

Plays a part in digestion.

It is also great for the brain and helps with depression and assist with memory and learning.

In children, it is required for growth

Thiamin has shown some indication to assist in arthritis, cataracts as well as infertility.

Thiamine can be useful for motion sickness in air and sea travel, and that this vitamin also repels insects when excreted through the skin.


How Much Vitamin

Food rich in vitamin B1

A lack of thiamine can be caused by malnutrition, a diet high in thiaminase-rich foods (raw freshwater fish, raw shellfish, ferns) and/or foods high in anti-thiamine factors (tea, coffee, betel nuts)

Thiamin is destroyed in cooking, and intake may be low if the diet is high in refined foods. Soda is alkaline and will destroy thiamin, if you are boiling green vegetables with it.

Sunflower seeds, peanuts, wheat bran, seafood, egg-yolk, beans, oatmeal, flax, brown rice, whole grain rye, asparagus, kale, cauliflower, potatoes, oranges, liver (beef, pork, and chicken) all contain good amounts of thiamin.

Yeast, yeast extract, and pork are the most highly concentrated sources of thiamine.

Cereal grains are the most important dietary sources of thiamine; whole grains contain more thiamine than refined grains, as thiamine is found mostly in the outer layers of the grain and in the germ (which are removed during the refining process). Flour must be enriched with thiamine mononitrate (along with niacin, ferrous iron, riboflavin, and folic acid) to replace that lost in processing.


Thiamin should be taken with the B group vitamins and manganese.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)


Vitamin B6, also known, as pyridoxine is part of the B GROUP vitamins is water-soluble and is required for both mental and physical health.
Pyridoxal phosphate, the metabolically active form of vitamin B6, is involved in many aspects of macronutrient metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, histamine synthesis, hemoglobin synthesis and function and gene expression.

Pyridoxal phosphate generally serves as a coenzyme for many reactions and can help facilitate decarboxylation, transamination, racemization, elimination, replacement, and beta-group interconversion reactions. The liver is the site for vitamin B6 metabolism.

The primary role of vitamin B6 is to act as a coenzyme to many other enzymes in the body that are involved predominantly in metabolism. This role is performed by the active form, pyridoxal phosphate. This active form is converted from the two other natural forms founds in food: pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine

Vitamin B6 is absorbed in the jejunum and ileum via passive diffusion.

Vitamin B6 has been used to treat nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy for decades, commonly in conjunction with other medications such as metoclopramide or doxylamine. Alone, it has been found safe and effective, though any woman’s prenatal caregiver must help guide treatment for these symptoms

Common symptoms of Vitamin B6 deficiency

Vitamin B6 deficiency symptoms will be very much like those of B2 and B3. Vitamin B6 is needed by the body to manufacture its own B3 vitamin.

Clinical syndrome for B6 deficiency is:

Seborrhoeic dermatitis, it’s an like eruption (is an inflammatory skin disorder affecting the scalp, face, and torso. Seborrheic dermatitis presents with scaly, flaky, itchy, and red skin).

Atrophic glossitis with ulceration, Smooth tongue, it ‘s a characterized by a smooth glossy tongue that is tender/painful.

Angular cheilitis It is an inflammatory lesion at the labial commissure, or corner of the mouth, and often occurs bilaterally. The condition manifests as deep cracks or splits. In severe cases, the splits can bleed when the mouth is opened and shallow ulcers or a crust may form.

conjunctivitis It is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids

It is an inflammation (rash) of the body folds ( obese people suffer a lot from intertrigo

Neurologic symptoms of somnolence, confusion, and neuropathy, Irritability, nervousness and insomnia, weakness, slow learning, Mood swings, Mental depression, loss of sexual drive

Impaired glucose tolerance

May play a role in sensitivity to monosodium glutamate (MSG). Can cause headaches, pain and tingling of the upper extremities, nausea, and vomiting.

May be more susceptible to carpal tunnel syndrome. Characterized by pain and tingling in the wrists after performing repetitive movements or otherwise straining the wrist on a regular basis.

Skin changes, skin eruptions such as dermatitis and acne, mouth disorders, inflamed tongue

Loss of muscular control, muscular weakness, dermatitis, arm & leg cramps, arthritis.

Loss of hair,

Water retention.

Asthma and allergies

Nails that are ridged

Kidney stones, anemia, changes to your bones, which can include osteoporosis

Women may suffer from pre-menstrual fluid retention, severe period pains, emotional PMS symptoms, premenstrual acne and nausea in early pregnancy.

If you are on hormone replacement therapy or on birth control pills.

The elderly and alcoholics have an increased risk of vitamin B6 deficiency, and other micronutrient deficiencies. Renal patients undergoing dialysis may experience vitamin B6 deficiency.

Patients with liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and those infected with HIV appear to be at risk, despite adequate dietary intakes.

Certain drugs can affect the benefit of vitamin B6 to the body:

Anticonvulsants and corticosteroids (chimicals or natural hormones)

The drug isoniazid (used in t he treatment of tuberculosis)

Cycloserine, penicillamine, and hydrocortisone

Exercising may aid the production of the active form of vitamin B6.

Common symptoms of Vitamin B6 Toxicity

Adverse effects have only been documented from vitamin B6 supplements and never from food sources. Although vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin and is excreted in the urine, doses of pyridoxine in excess of the RDI over long periods of time thus result in painful and ultimately irreversible neurological problems.

The primary symptoms of toxicity:

Pain and numbness of the extremities

In severe cases difficulty walking

Sensory neuropathy typically develops at doses of pyridoxine in excess of 1,000 mg per day. However, there have been a few case reports of individuals who developed sensory neuropathies at doses of less than 500 mg daily over a period of months. None of the studies, in which an objective neurological examination was performed, found evidence of sensory nerve damage at intakes of pyridoxine below 200 mg/day. This condition is usually reversible when supplementation is stopped.

Supplementation should be controlled, extreme dosage, such as 2,000 mg per day, may cause neurological damage.

People on medication for Parkinson’s disease should be careful about taking Vitamin B, it can inactivate levodopa.

People taking pyridoxine late at night sometimes experience very vivid dreams or the ability to recall dreams


Evidence indicates that vitamin B6, a coenzyme involved in nearly 100 enzymatic reactions, may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer.

Benefit from Vitamin B6

Necessary for the synthesis & breakdown of amino acids

The building blocks of protein; aids in fat and carbohydrate metabolism;

Maintains the central nervous system

Promotes healthy skin; reduces muscle spasms, leg cramps, hand numbness, nausea & stiffness of hands

Helps maintain a proper balance of sodium & phosphorous in the body.

Pyridoxine is required for the balancing of hormonal changes in women, aids in the removal of excess fluid of premenstrual women

Assisting the immune system, aids in the formation of antibodies and the growth of new cells.

The processing and metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, amino acid metabolism, from synthesis to breakdown, glucose, and lipid metabolism

Pyridoxamine has therapeutic effects in clinical trials for diabetic nephropathy.

Controlling your mood and your behavior.

Benefit for children with learning difficulties,

The prevention of dandruff, eczema, and psoriasis.

Promotes red blood cell production.

Involved in the nucleic acids RNA and DNA.

May help improve memory in older adults.

Linked to cancer immunity

Ingestion of vitamin B6 can alleviate some of the many symptoms of an alcoholic hangover and morning sickness from pregnancy.

Fights the formation of the toxic chemical homocysteine, which is detrimental to the heart muscle. Pyridoxine has a role in preventing heart disease. Pyridoxine lowers blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels and keeps blood platelets from sticking together

Could cut the risk of Parkinson’s disease by half

Have a beneficial effect on carpal tunnel syndrome, particularly in cases where no trauma or overuse etiology for the CTS is known.

Should you be taking antidepressants, contraceptive pills or be on hormone replacement therapy you may need more of this vitamin. As this vitamin is readily lost in the urine, it must be taken regularly to ensure an adequate amount in the body. Anybody on a very high protein diet, using alcohol, or allergic to MSG (mono sodium glutamate) and/or tartrazine may also consider increasing their vitamin B6 intake.

Women who take B6 supplements have reductions in bloating, breast pain, and premenstrual acne flare, a condition in which pimples break out about a week before a woman’s period begins. There is strong evidence that pyridoxine supplementation, starting ten days before the menstrual period, prevents most pimples from forming. This effect is due to the vitamin’s role in hormone and prostaglandin regulation. Skin blemishes are typically caused by a hormone imbalance, which vitamin B6 helps to regulate.

How Much Vitamin B6

Food rich in Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is sensitive to sunlight. Cooking, storage and processing (Freezing and canning) may losses some of the vitamin B6 some foods may loss more than 50%

Good sources to obtain pyridoxine from:

Brewer’s yeast, eggs, chicken, carrots, fish, liver, kidneys, peas, wheat germ, walnuts, meats, whole grain products, vegetables, nuts and bananas


Pyridoxine should be taken together with the entire B group vitamins, and in supplementation the quantity of B6 should be nearly the same as B2, as the B 2 is needed to activate the Pyridoxine.

Vitamin C is a good partner in nutrition and magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc, linoleic acid and fatty acids make good running mates.

Vitamin B6-magnesium combination can also help attention deficit disorder, citing improvements in hyperactivity, hyperemotivity/aggressiveness and improved school attention. High dose vitamin B6 and magnesium is one of the most popular alternative medicine choices for autism

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)


Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B-12, also called cobolamin and known as the energy vitamin is a very widely researched vitamin, and used in supplementation to a very large degree.

This complex structured compound with its cobalt content forms part of the B group vitamins, and the body needs very small amounts.

Vitamin B12 cannot be manufactured by any plants, and therefore is only found in animal products – therefore a deficiency may happens to people on a strict vegan diet.

Unlike other water-soluble vitamins, B12 needs some 3 hours to be absorbed where other B vitamins are absorbed nearly immediately.

Is a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood.

The B vitamins work together to convert carbohydrates into glucose (sugar), which is then “burned” to produce energy.

B vitamins are often referred to as B-complex vitamins and are essential in
the metabolism of fats and protein. They are necessary for maintaining muscle tone
in the gastrointestinal tract and promoting the health of the nervous system, skin,
hair, eyes, mouth, and liver.

is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid synthesis and energy production.

As the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin, it can be produced industrially only through bacterial fermentation-synthesis.

Vitamin B12 is especially important for maintaining healthy nerve cells.

It’s also
helpful in the production of DNA and RNA (the body’s genetic material).

Common symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system.

At levels only slightly lower than normal, a range of symptoms such as fatigue, depression, and poor memory may be experienced. However, these symptoms by themselves are too nonspecific to diagnose deficiency of the vitamin.

Vitamin B12 deficiency can also cause symptoms of mania and psychosis.

Vitamin B12 deficiency can be caused by the metabolic disorder pernicious anemia.

May lead to poor appetite, and growth failure in children, tiredness, brain damage, nervousness, neuritis, and degeneration of spinal cord, depression, lack of balance.

Some symptoms of a deficiency will include a sore tongue, weakness, fatigue, and weight loss, back pain and apathy. It might further result in loss of balance, decreased reflexes, tingling of the fingers, ringing in the ears

A deficiency may also result in the raising of the level of homocysteine in the blood – which in high doses can be toxic to the brain, which may be involved in Alzheimer disease.

Severe deficiency may result in pernicious anemia also called Addisonian pernicious anemia.

Another problem that appears in deficiency is the eroding of the myelin sheath – the fatty sheath of tissue, which insulates the nerve fibers in your body.

People on strict vegan and macrobiotic diets are often deficient on Vitamin B12.

Some people suffer from a potentially serious problem, causing the vitamin not to be absorbed in the intestinal tract, which can lead to pernicious (destructive) anemia.

Anybody consuming alcohol should look at their B12 levels or if you take laxatives or antacids regularly.

Older people could also benefit from this vitamin as the intestinal situation changes as you age, and many people older than sixty have difficulty extracting the vitamin from ingested food because stomach acids are not present.

In order for the body to absorb vitamin B12, there must be normal function of the
stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.

Vitamin B12 deficiency is usually caused by a
lack of intrinsic factor, which is a substance that allows the body to absorb vitamin
B12 from the digestive system.

Other potential causes include a blood disorder called
pernicious anemia, vegetarians who follow a strict vegan or macrobiotic diet,
individuals with certain intestinal infections such as tapeworm, and those with an
eating disorder.

Megaloblastic changes, and occasional cases of symptomatic anemia have occurred, usually after doses of 8 to 12 g/day for several months.

Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include fatigue, diarrhea, shortness of breath,
nervousness, and numbness or tingling in the fingers and toes


A variety of medical conditions can lead to the symptoms mentioned above. It is
important to have a physician ( Doctor, Naturopath) evaluate and them having the appropriate dose.

Excessive alcohol can impair the absorption of this vitamin. Excessive alcohol intake lasting longer than two weeks can decrease vitamin B12 absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
Aminosalicylic acid can reduce oral vitamin B12 absorption, possibly by as much as 55%, as part of a general malabsorption syndrome.

Vitamin B12 levels should be monitored in people taking aminosalicylic acid for more than one month.


An increased bacterial load can bind significant amounts of vitamin B12 in the gut, preventing its absorption. In people with bacterial overgrowth of the small bowel, antibiotics such as metronidazole (Flagyl) can actually improve vitamin B12 status.

• Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin): Limited case reports suggest that chloramphenicol can delay or interrupt the reticulocyte response to supplemental vitamin B12 in some patients. Blood counts should be monitored closely if this combination cannot be avoided.

• Cobalt irradiation: Cobalt irradiation of the small bowel can decrease gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of vitamin B12.

• Colchicine: Colchicine in doses of 1.9 to 3.9 mg/day can disrupt normal intestinal mucosal function, leading to malabsorption of several nutrients, including vitamin B12. Lower doses do not seem to have a significant effect on vitamin B12 absorption after 3 years of colchicine therapy. The significance of this interaction is unclear. Vitamin B12 levels should be monitored in people taking large doses of colchicine for prolonged periods.

• Colestipol (Colestid), cholestyramine (Questran): These resins used for sequestering bile acids to decrease cholesterol, can decrease gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of vitamin B12. It is unlikely this interaction will deplete body stores of vitamin B12 unless there are other factors contributing to deficiency. In a group of children treated with cholestyramine for up to 2.5 years, there was not any change in serum vitamin B12 levels. Routine supplements are not necessary.

• H2-receptor antagonists: include cimetidine (Tagamet), famotidine (Pepcid), nizatidine (Axid), and ranitidine (Zantac). Reduced secretion of gastric acid and pepsin produced by H2 blockers can reduce absorption of protein-bound (dietary) vitamin B12, but not of supplemental vitamin B12. Gastric acid is needed to release vitamin B12 from protein for absorption. Clinically significant vitamin B12 deficiency and megaloblastic anemia are unlikely, unless H2 blocker therapy is prolonged (2 years or more), or the person’s diet is poor. It is also more likely if the person is rendered achlorhydric(with complete absence of gastric acid secretion), which occurs more frequently with proton pump inhibitors than H2 blockers. Vitamin B12 levels should be monitored in people taking high doses of H2 blockers for prolonged periods.

• Metformin (Glucophage): Metformin may reduce serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. These changes can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia, adding to the risk of cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes.[citation needed] There are also rare reports of megaloblastic anemia in people who have taken metformin for five years or more. Reduced serum levels of vitamin B12 occur in up to 30% of people taking metformin chronically.[20][21] However, clinically significant deficiency is not likely to develop if dietary intake of vitamin B12 is adequate. Deficiency can be corrected with vitamin B12 supplements even if metformin is continued. The metformin-induced malabsorption of vitamin B12 is reversible by oral calcium supplementation.[22] The general clinical significance of metformin upon B12 levels is as yet unknown.[23]

• Neomycin: Absorption of vitamin B12 can be reduced by neomycin, but prolonged use of large doses is needed to induce pernicious anemia. Supplements are not usually needed with normal doses.

• Nicotine: Nicotine can reduce serum vitamin B12 levels. The need for vitamin B12 supplementation in smokers has not been adequately studied.

• Nitrous oxide: Nitrous oxide inactivates the cobalamin form of vitamin B12 by oxidation. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, including sensory neuropathy, myelopathy, and encephalopathy, can occur within days or weeks of exposure to nitrous oxide anesthesia in people with subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Symptoms are treated with high doses of vitamin B12, but recovery can be slow and incomplete. People with normal vitamin B12 levels have sufficient vitamin B12 stores to make the effects of nitrous oxide insignificant, unless exposure is repeated and prolonged (such as recreational use). Vitamin B12 levels should be checked in people with risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency prior to using nitrous oxide anesthesia. Chronic nitrous oxide B12 poisoning (usually from use of nitrous oxide as a recreational drug), however, may result in B12 functional deficiency even with normal measured blood levels of B12.[24]

• Phenytoin (Dilantin), phenobarbital, primidone (Mysoline): These anticonvulsants have been associated with reduced vitamin B12 absorption, and reduced serum and cerebrospinal fluidlevels in some patients. This may contribute to the megaloblastic anemia, primarily caused by folate deficiency, associated with these drugs. It is also suggested that reduced vitamin B12 levels may contribute to the neuropsychiatric side effects of these drugs. Patients should be encouraged to maintain adequate dietary vitamin B12 intake. Folate and vitamin B12 status should be checked if symptoms of anemia develop.

• Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): The PPIs include omeprazole (Prilosec, Losec), lansoprazole(Prevacid), rabeprazole (Aciphex), pantoprazole (Protonix, Pantoloc), and esomeprazole (Nexium). The reduced secretion of gastric acid and pepsin produced by PPIs can reduce absorption of protein-bound (dietary) vitamin B12, but not supplemental vitamin B12. Gastric acid is needed to release vitamin B12 from protein for absorption. Reduced vitamin B12 levels may be more common with PPIs than with H2-blockers, because they are more likely to produce achlorhydria (complete absence of gastric acid secretion). However, clinically significant vitamin B12 deficiency is unlikely, unless PPI therapy is prolonged (2 years or more) or dietary vitamin intake is low. Vitamin B12 levels should be monitored in people taking high doses of PPIs for prolonged periods.

• Zidovudine (AZT, Combivir, Retrovir): Reduced serum vitamin B12 levels may occur when zidovudine therapy is started. This adds to other factors that cause low vitamin B12 levels in people with HIV, and might contribute to the hematological toxicity associated with zidovudine. However, the data suggest vitamin B12 supplements are not helpful for people taking zidovudine.[citation needed] • Folic acid: Folic acid, particularly in large doses, can mask vitamin B12 deficiency by completely correcting hematological abnormalities. In vitamin B12 deficiency, folic acid can produce complete resolution of the characteristic megaloblastic anemia, while allowing potentially irreversible neurological damage (from continued inactivity of methylmalonyl mutase) to progress. Thus, vitamin B12 status should be determined before folic acid is given as monotherapy.

• Potassium: Potassium supplements can reduce absorption of vitamin B12 in some people. This effect has been reported with potassium chloride and, to a lesser extent, with potassium citrate. Potassium might contribute to vitamin B12 deficiency in some people with other risk factors, but routine supplements are not necessary

Common symptoms of Vitamin B12Toxicity

Vitamin B12 has extremely low toxicity and even taking it in enormous doses appears not to be harmful to healthy individuals.

Toxicity not established but people taking vitamin B12 injections may experience skin problems if in large excess, but will normalize once the injections are stopped.

Vitamin B12 supplements should be avoided by people who are sensitive or allergic to
cobalamin and cobalt.

Taking very high doses of vitamin B12 can cause diarrhea,
itching, rash, transitory exanthema, and urticaria.

Taking any one of the B complex
vitamins for a long period of time can cause an imbalance of the other important B
vitamins. To avoid the imbalance, it is recommended that you take a B-complex
vitamin instead of isolating any single B vitamin.


Eating natural foods that are high in vitamin B12 is the safest and healthiest
way to get an adequate supply of the nutrient.

Due to risk of toxicity, individuals
should always consult with a knowledgeable health care provider before starting
doses of supplements.

Before giving supplements to children, it is recommended that
you first consult with their pediatrician.

Also, some supplements may interfere with
medications. If you are taking medication, it is recommended that you consult with
your physician before taking any supplements.

All supplements should be kept in
childproof bottles and out of children’s reach.


(Vitamin B12 Overdose):

Vitamin B12 supplements should be avoided by people who are sensitive or allergic to
cobalamin and cobalt.

Taking very high doses of vitamin B12 can cause diarrhea,
itching, rash, transitory exanthema, and urticaria.

Taking any one of the B complex
vitamins for a long period of time can cause an imbalance of the other important B
vitamins. To avoid the imbalance, it is recommended that you take a B-complex
vitamin instead of isolating any single B vitamin.


or any other product ingredients.

Benefit from Vitamin B12

High vitamin B12 level in elderly individuals may protect against brain atrophy or shrinkage, associated with Alzheimer’s disease and impaired cognitive function.It is often used with older people to give an energy boost, assist in preventing mental deterioration and helps with speeding up thought processes.

promotes growth in children; increases energy; needed for Calcium absorption.

Stimulates appetite, promotes growth and release energy.

it helps with clearing up infections and provide protection against allergies and cancer.

vitamin 12 is also used in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Convert carbohydrates into glucose (sugar), which is then “burned” to produce

They are necessary for maintaining muscle tone
in the gastrointestinal tract

promoting the health of the nervous system, skin,
hair, eyes, mouth, and liver.

High-dose administration of Vitamin B12 has been additionally validated to stimulate the activity of the body’s TH1 suppressor T-Cells, which then down-regulates the over-production of the allagen antibody 1gE in allergic individuals

Vitamin B12 is especially important for maintaining healthy nerve cells. It’s also
helpful in the production of DNA and RNA (the body’s genetic material).

Vitamin B12
and vitamin B9 work closely together to regulate the formation of red blood cells and
to help iron function better in the body. helping prevent anemia;

help prevent
conditions such as cancer, neural tube defects, dementia, and depression.

It is also given as part of the schilling test for detecting pernicious anemia.
Vitamin B12, is used to treat vitamin B12 deficiency, cyanide poisoning, and hereditary deficiency of transcobalamin II.


How Much Vitamin

Food rich in Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is present in:

liver, organ meat, muscle meat, shellfish, eggs, cheese, fish, and can be manufactured in the body. Although milk contains B12, processing of milk may lead to destruction of the vitamin.

List of Foods High in Vitamin B12:

Foods high in vitamin B12 include: meat, poultry, and fish.

Clams, Mussels, Raw oysters, Crab, steamed, Salmon, baked,
Beef, cooked, beef liver, pork liver, Milk, skim, Egg, poached, Brie cheese, Swiss cheese,
Chicken, Turkey


Vitamin B12
and vitamin B9 work closely together to regulate the formation of red blood cells and
to help iron function better in the body.

Iron, calcium, sodium, potassium as well as vitamin C are good in nutritional synergy.

Vitamin C


Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate is vitamin C is an anti-oxidant. It is also water soluble as B complex. water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins, which include the B-complex group and vitamin C, travel through the bloodstream.

It is an essential nutrient for humans. Is well known for its antioxidant activity, acting as a reducing agent to reverse oxidation in liquids..Vitamin C is required in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissue, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, carnitine, conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and enhances iron bioavailability. Ascorbic acid is a great antioxidant and helps protect the body against pollutants. linked to prevention of degenerative diseases – such as cataracts, certain cancers and cardiovascular diseases.

Ascorbic acid also promotes healthy cell development, proper calcium absorption, normal tissue growth and repair – such as healing of wounds and burns. It assists in the prevention of blood clotting and bruising, and strengthening the walls of the capillaries.

Vitamin C is needed for healthy gums, to help protect against infection, and assisting with clearing up infections and is thought to enhance the immune system and help reduce cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and preventing arteriosclerosis.

Vitamin C are found in the adrenal and pituitary gland. High levels are also found in liver, leukocytes, brain, kidney, and pancreas. Most of the vitamin C is found in liver and skeletal muscle because of their relative size to the rest of the body.

Vitamin C also plays important roles in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, carnitine, conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, tyrosine degradation, and metal ion metabolism. This vitamin also may enhance iron bioavailability. The role of ascorbic acid as a biological reducing agent may be linked to its prevention of degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This vitamin is important for tissue healing

Vitamin C is absorbed by the intestines using a sodium-ion dependent channel. It is transported through the intestine via both glucose-sensitive and glucose-insensitive mechanisms. The presence of large quantities of sugar either in the intestines or in the blood can slow absorption.

Whatever water-soluble vitamins are not used by the body are eliminated in urine, which means you need a continuous supply of them in your food. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin.

Women and men should consume at least 60 milligrams of vitamin C each day.

Common symptoms of Vitamin C deficiency

Shortage of vitamin C may result in “pinpoint” hemorrhages under the skin and a tendency to bruise easily, poor wound healing, soft and spongy bleeding gums and loose teeth.

Edema (water retention) also happens with a shortage of vitamin C, and weakness, a lack of energy, poor digestion, painful joints and bronchial infection and colds are also indicative of an under-supply.

Antacids, alcohol, antidepressants, birth control pills and steroids will deplete this vitamin.

May lead to soft & bleeding gums, swollen or painful joints, slow-healing wounds & fractures, bruising, nosebleeds, tooth decay, loss of appetite, muscular weakness, skin hemorrhages, capillary weakness

Scurvy is an avitaminosis, it leads to the formation of brown spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from all mucous membranes. The spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially immobilized.

People who smoke need to consume more vitamin C. swollen, bleeding gums, loosening of the teeth, capillary hemorrhaging, including bleeding into joints, tender and painful extremities, poor wound healing, weakness and fatigue, and psychological disturbances.

Anemia, impaired digestion. Advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds and loss of teeth and, eventually, death. Western societies generally consume far more than sufficient Vitamin C to prevent scurvy.

Common symptoms of Vitamin C Toxicity

Vitamin C is water soluble, with dietary excesses not absorbed, and excesses in the blood rapidly excreted in the urine. It exhibits remarkably low toxicity.

Since ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, toxic levels are not built up or stored in the body, and any excess is lost mostly through urine.
gastrointestinal problems may appear, but will normalize when the intake is cut or reduced.

The signs and symptoms in adults were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, flushing of the face, headache, fatigue and disturbed sleep. The main toxic reactions in the infants were skin rashes.

the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Some people using mega dose therapy of vitamin C may have side effects such as gastrointestinal complaints including diarrhea, nausea and abdominal cramps. These side effects normally stop as soon as high potency intake is reduced or stopped.

Mega doses of vitamin C should be avoided in individuals with a history of renal stones due to oxalate formation or hemochromatosis or other diseases related to excessive iron accumulation.

Extremely high dosage of vitamin C may predispose premature infants to hemolytic anemia due to the fragility of their red blood cells.

The need for vitamin C will dramatically increase in times when the body is subjected to trauma, infections, and strenuous exercise, elevated environmental temperatures or if the person is a smoker. Smokers should supplement with another 100 mg per day.

Be careful of taking aspirin and vitamin C together – it may cause stomach irritation.

large doses include diarrhea and flatulence’

Decrease number of colon polyps in patients taking high doses such polyps are precursors for colon cancer. If we can decrease polyp formation with vitamin C perhaps we can decrease colon cancer as well. The use of vitamin C in this capacity should accompany a very low fat diet that is high in dietary fiber.

High dose vitamin C may be a problem in patients with a tendency to kidney stone formation

megadoses of vitamin C should be avoided in individuals with a history of renal stones due to oxalate formation or hemochromatosis or other diseases related to excessive iron accumulation.

Excess vitamin C may predispose premature infants to hemolytic anemia due to the fragility of their red blood cells. In healthy individuals,

it appears that megadoses of vitamin C are well tolerated and not associated with any consistent adverse effects.
Large doses of ascorbic acid may cause indigestion, particularly when taken on an empty stomach.

Causes diarrhea

causes kidney stones,

the first month of pregnancy, high doses of vitamin C may suppress the production of progesterone from the corpus luteum. It Is necessary for the maintenance of a pregnancy, It is produced by the corpus luteum for the first few weeks, until the placenta is developed enough to produce its own source


Claiming it as a cure-all for may diseases and problems – from cancer to the common cold. According to Dr. Lines Pauling, the foremost authority on Vitamin C, Vitamin C will decrease the risk of getting certain cancers by 75%.

Smoking and alcohol consumption will increase the excretion of vitamin C. Alcohol will actually deplete all of the water-soluble vitamins. Used by Pauling and Cameron to decrease cancer growth and cause remissions in cancer patients.

More than 2,000 milligrams a day may cause a flushed face, headache, increased urination, mild diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should take more than the daily recommended amounts of vitamin C.

Moderately higher blood levels of vitamin C measured in healthy persons have been found to be prospectively correlated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and ischaemic heart disease, and an increase life expectancy. The same study found an inverse relationship between blood vitamin C levels and cancer risk in men, but not in women.

has an impact on cardiovascular disease, hypertension, chronic inflammatory diseases, diabetes as well as on critically ill patients and individuals with severe burns.

Mega doses have been promoted for the treatment or prevention of various conditions, including cancer, the common cold, and coronary disease. These uses are not supported by clinical evidence, and in some cases harm may result.

Benefit from Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a natural antihistamine.

Scurvy is the only disease clinically treated with vitamin C.

Essential for healthy teeth, gums & Bones; helps heal wounds, scar tissue, & Fractures; prevents scurvy; builds resistance to infection;

Aids in the prevention & treatment of the common cold; gives strength to blood vessels;

Prevent cell damage,

Aids in the absorption of iron.

It is required for the synthesis of collagen, the intercellular “cement” which holds tissues together.

It is also one of the major antioxidant nutrients. It prevents the conversion of nitrates (from tobacco smoke, smog, bacon, lunch meats, & some vegetables) into cancer-causing substances.

Peptic ulcers will heal faster on vitamin C than those without extra vitamin C.

May be associated with delayed aging and disease prevention by destroying ‘free radicals’-the molecules associated with aging and cell damage.

Consuming plenty of vitamin C might fuel better lung function.

Vitamin C will help with wound healing and healing of burns.

It improves the strength of the walls of the blood vessels and may help decrease the easy bruising seen with some patients.

Vitamin C in topical form to prevent sunburn and to absorb the ultraviolet rays will soon be available.

Vitamin C may help people with low back pain and arthritis due to its anti- oxidant effects. This and other vitamins need to be taken over long periods.

Vitamin C and carotenoids, may protect you from developing Cataracts

Possible effects on wound healing, blood pressure, colds and immune function

Antioxidants, such as vitamin E and vitamin C, help fight against cell damage and slow aging in the body.

High intake of vitamin E and C may also reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, a degenerative disease that leads to loss of physical and mental function, say researchers from the Netherlands in a study published in the

Therapeutic use is supported in the prevention or treatment of pneumonia.

Reduced risk of having a stroke and low ascorbic acid has been suggested as a way of identifying those at high risk of stroke.

Prevention or treatment of the common cold,

How Much Vitamin C

Food rich in Vitamin C

Vitamin C concentrations in various food substances decrease with time in proportion to the temperature they are stored at and cooking can reduce the Vitamin C content of vegetables by around 60% possibly partly due to increased enzymatic destruction as it may be more significant at sub-boiling temperatures. Longer cooking times also add to this effect, as will copper food vessels, which catalyse the decomposition. Vitamin C being lost from food is leaching, where the water-soluble vitamin dissolves into the cooking water, which is later poured away and not consumed. However, vitamin C does not leach in all vegetables at the same rate;

The richest natural sources are fruits and vegetables, and of those, the Kakadu plum and the camu camu fruit contain the highest concentration of the vitamin. It is also present in some cuts of meat, especially liver.

Antagonists that destroy this vitamin are air, heat, water as well as prolonged storage, overcooking and processing.

Keep milk and grains away from strong light

Good sources of vitamin C are:

Green leafy vegetables, berries, citrus fruits, guavas, tomatoes, Potatoes with skins, Green and red peppers, Broccoli, Spinach, melons, papayas, Tomatoes etc.
Wild Potato, Camu Camu, Rose hip, Acerola, Seabuckthorn, Mica Muro, Indian gooseberry, Baobab, Chili pepper (green), Guava (common, raw), Blackcurrant, Red pepper, Chili pepper (red), Parsley, Kiwifruit, Broccoli, Loganberry, Redcurrant, Brussels sprouts, Wolfberry (Goji), Lychee, Persimmon (native, raw), Cloudberry, Elderberry Papaya, Strawberry, Orange, Kale, Lemon, Melon, cantaloupe, Cauliflower, Garlic, Grapefruit, Raspberry, Tangerine, Mandarin orange, Passion fruit, Spinach, Cabbage raw green, Lime, Mango, Blackberry, Potato Melon, honeydew, Cranberry, omato, Blueberry, Pineapple, Pawpaw Grape, Apricot, Plum, Watermelon, Banana, Carrot, Avocado, Crabapple, Persimmon (Japanese, fresh), Cherry, Peach, Apple, Asparagus, Horned melon, Beetroot, Chokecherry, Pear, Lettuce, Cucumber, Eggplant, Raisin, Fig, Bilberry, Medlar. Calf liver (raw), Beef liver (raw), Oysters (raw), Cod roe (fried), Pork liver (raw), Lamb brain (boiled), Chicken liver (fried), Lamb liver (fried), Calf adrenals (raw), Lamb heart (roast), Lamb tongue (stewed), Human milk (fresh), Goat milk (fresh), Camel milk (fresh), Cow milk (fresh).


Vitamin C is found in high concentrations in immune cells, and is consumed quickly during infections.

Vitamin C will be more effective if taken with bioflavonoids, calcium and magnesium. To enhance the antioxidant properties, it will be best to take it with the other anti-oxidants, as there is strong evidence of synergy between all of them. Ongoing research is looking at the clinical use of vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Iron supplements to help treat iron deficiency, the use of vitamin C taken at the same time, as the iron medicine will greatly enhance the absorption of iron.

If you take vitamin supplements, store them at room temperature in a dry place that’s free of moisture.


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